Recently Updated Entries in the Encyclopedia

Tariff of 1833
Approved by Congress on March 1, 1833 and signed by President Andrew Jackson the next day, the Tariff of 1833 was a compromise measure brokered by Senators Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun as part of a successful effort to resolve the Nullification Crisis of 1832-1833. Continue Reading »
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
In December 1828, United States Vice-President John C. Calhoun anonymously penned two documents collectively known as the South Carolina Exposition and Protest, which outlined his objections to the Tariff of 1828. Continue Reading »
Nullification Crisis
On November 24, 1832, the Convention of the People of South Carolina approved the South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification, precipitating a constitutional crisis that nearly triggered a civil war in the United States. Continue Reading »
Force Act (1833)
Approved by Congress on March 1, 1833 and signed by President Andrew Jackson the next day, the Force Act of 1833, known in South Carolina as the "Bloody Bill," authorized President Jackson to employ land, naval, or militia forces for the purpose of protecting customs officials and for enforcing United States tariff laws. Continue Reading »
Tariff of 1832
Enacted on July 14, 1832, the Tariff of 1832 was an attempt to address Southern grievances over the high protective duties imposed by the Tariff of 1828. Hostility toward the new tariff in South Carolina nearly led to civil war. Continue Reading »
South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification
On November 24, 1832, a special convention convened by the South Carolina Legislature approved the South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification, declaring the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 to be null and void in the State of South Carolina and threatening secession from the Union if the United States government attempted to use military force to enforce the tariffs. Continue Reading »
Wood, Thomas J.
Thomas J. Wood was a prominent Union general who participated in nearly every major campaign in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. Continue Reading »
Tariff of 1828
Also known as the Tariff of Abominations, the Tariff of 1828, prompted United States Vice-President John C. Calhoun to anonymously pen his Exposition and Protest, which invoked the doctrine of nullification in challenging the constitutionality of the act. Continue Reading »
Calhoun, John C.
A staunch defender of slavery, states' rights, and nullification, John C. Calhoun served the nation as a Congressional Representative and Senator from South Carolina, U.S. Secretary of War and Secretary of State, and Vice President of the United States during the Antebellum Era. Continue Reading »
Curtis, Samuel R.
Perhaps one of the more underrated Union officers of the American Civil War, Major General Samuel R. Curtis played a prominent role in securing and maintaining Federal control of the border state of Missouri throughout the conflict. Continue Reading »
Fort Stedman, Battle of
Fought on March 25, 1865, the Battle of Fort Stedman was a failed Confederate assault on Union fortifications east of Petersburg, Virginia, which brought about an end to the Petersburg Campaign. Continue Reading »
General Orders, No. 109 (U.S. War Department)
On August 16, 1862, the U.S. War Department issued General Orders, No. 109 announcing that President Abraham Lincoln authorized military commanders to seize property in states in rebellion for military purposes. The order also authorized military leaders to employ laborers of African descent for military purposes. Continue Reading »
Rosecrans, William
William S. Rosecrans was a prominent Union general who, perhaps unfairly, is best remembered for his role during the Union defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga. Continue Reading »
Confederate Heartland Offensive
The Confederate Heartland Offensive, also known as the Kentucky Campaign, was a Confederate invasion of the border state of Kentucky in 1862. Confederate Generals Braxton Bragg and Kirby Smith planned to unite their armies in Kentucky to defeat Major General Don Carlos Buell's Army of the Ohio and to deliver Kentucky to the Confederacy. Continue Reading »
Official Documents of the Civil War Indexed Alpha-numerically
Below is an annotated list of Civil War executive, general, and special orders related to entries in Ohio Civil War Central. The list is indexed alpha-numerically. Click on any link to view a transcript of the selected document. Continue Reading »
Official Documents of the Civil War Indexed by Date
Below is an annotated list of Civil War executive, general, and special orders related to entries in Ohio Civil War Central. The list is indexed by date. Click on any link to view a transcript of the selected document. Continue Reading »
President Johnson's Executive Order Appointing John A. Bingham as a Special Judge-Advocate for the Prosecution of President Lincoln's Accused Assassins
On May 7, 1865, President Andrew John issued an executive order appointing John A. Bingham as a special judge-advocate for the prosecution of President Abraham Lincoln's accused assassins. Continue Reading »
President Lincoln's Executive Order Acknowledging the Service of the Ohio National Guard Who Recently Served In the Military Force of the United States as Volunteers for One Hundred Days
On September 10, 1864, President Lincoln issued an executive order acknowledging the patriotic and valuable service of Ohio National Guardsmen. Continue Reading »
President Lincoln's Executive Order Tendering Thanks to William T. Sherman
On September 3, 1864, President Lincoln issued an executive order offering the thanks of the nation to William T. Sherman for his successful campaign in Georgia that led to the capture of Atlanta. Continue Reading »
President Lincoln's Executive Order to Arrest and Imprison the Editors of the New York World and New York Journal of Commerce
On May 18, 1864, President Lincoln issued an executive order commanding Major General John A. Dix to arrest and imprison the editors, proprietors, and publishers of the New York World and New York Journal of Commerce newspapers for printing false stories giving comfort to the enemies of the U.S. Continue Reading »

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Ohio Civil War Central: An Encyclopedia of the American Civil War