Recently Updated Entries in the Encyclopedia

Reynolds, John Fulton
One of the Union's leading general officers, Major General John F. Reynolds was killed during the first day of fighting at the Battle of Gettysburg on July 1, 1863. Continue Reading »
Army of the Potomac
The Army of the Potomac was the Union's primary fighting force in the Eastern Theater throughout most of the American Civil War. Continue Reading »
Munfordville, Battle of
Also known as the Battle of Green River, and the Battle of the Green River Bridge, the Battle of Munfordville was fought from September 14-17, 1862 at Munfordville, Kentucky, as part of the Confederate Heartland Campaign. Continue Reading »
Virginia Resolutions
Drafted by James Madison and adopted by the Virginia General Assembly on December 24, 1798, the Virginia Resolutions asserted that, collectively, the states have the right to interpose when the federal government exceeds its constitutional authority. Continue Reading »
Alien and Sedition Acts
Enacted in 1798 by the 5th United States Congress, the Alien and Sedition Acts served the dual purpose of attempting to muffle anti-war sentiment and to cripple the Democratic-Republican Party. Continue Reading »
Appomattox Court House, Surrender at
On April 9, 1865, Generals Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee met at the home of Wilmer McClean, located in the small Virginia village of Appomattox Court House, to negotiate the surrender of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. By 4 p.m., the two generals reached an agreement, and Lee signed a document surrendering his army. Continue Reading »
Kentucky Resolutions
Primarily crafted by Thomas Jefferson in protest to the Alien and Sedition Acts, the Kentucky Resolutions declared that states had the authority to nullify federal legislation that they believed to be unconstitutional. Continue Reading »
Tariff of 1833
Approved by Congress on March 1, 1833 and signed by President Andrew Jackson the next day, the Tariff of 1833 was a compromise measure brokered by Senators Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun as part of a successful effort to resolve the Nullification Crisis of 1832-1833. Continue Reading »
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
In December 1828, United States Vice-President John C. Calhoun anonymously penned two documents collectively known as the South Carolina Exposition and Protest, which outlined his objections to the Tariff of 1828. Continue Reading »
Nullification Crisis
On November 24, 1832, the Convention of the People of South Carolina approved the South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification, precipitating a constitutional crisis that nearly triggered a civil war in the United States. Continue Reading »
Force Act (1833)
Approved by Congress on March 1, 1833 and signed by President Andrew Jackson the next day, the Force Act of 1833, known in South Carolina as the "Bloody Bill," authorized President Jackson to employ land, naval, or militia forces for the purpose of protecting customs officials and for enforcing United States tariff laws. Continue Reading »
Tariff of 1832
Enacted on July 14, 1832, the Tariff of 1832 was an attempt to address Southern grievances over the high protective duties imposed by the Tariff of 1828. Hostility toward the new tariff in South Carolina nearly led to civil war. Continue Reading »
South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification
On November 24, 1832, a special convention convened by the South Carolina Legislature approved the South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification, declaring the tariffs of 1828 and 1832 to be null and void in the State of South Carolina and threatening secession from the Union if the United States government attempted to use military force to enforce the tariffs. Continue Reading »
Wood, Thomas J.
Thomas J. Wood was a prominent Union general who participated in nearly every major campaign in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. Continue Reading »
Tariff of 1828
Also known as the Tariff of Abominations, the Tariff of 1828, prompted United States Vice-President John C. Calhoun to anonymously pen his Exposition and Protest, which invoked the doctrine of nullification in challenging the constitutionality of the act. Continue Reading »
Calhoun, John C.
A staunch defender of slavery, states' rights, and nullification, John C. Calhoun served the nation as a Congressional Representative and Senator from South Carolina, U.S. Secretary of War and Secretary of State, and Vice President of the United States during the Antebellum Era. Continue Reading »
Curtis, Samuel R.
Perhaps one of the more underrated Union officers of the American Civil War, Major General Samuel R. Curtis played a prominent role in securing and maintaining Federal control of the border state of Missouri throughout the conflict. Continue Reading »
Fort Stedman, Battle of
Fought on March 25, 1865, the Battle of Fort Stedman was a failed Confederate assault on Union fortifications east of Petersburg, Virginia, which brought about an end to the Petersburg Campaign. Continue Reading »
General Orders, No. 109 (U.S. War Department)
On August 16, 1862, the U.S. War Department issued General Orders, No. 109 announcing that President Abraham Lincoln authorized military commanders to seize property in states in rebellion for military purposes. The order also authorized military leaders to employ laborers of African descent for military purposes. Continue Reading »
Rosecrans, William
William S. Rosecrans was a prominent Union general who, perhaps unfairly, is best remembered for his role during the Union defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga. Continue Reading »

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Ohio Civil War Central: An Encyclopedia of the American Civil War