110th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry (1862 - 1865)

Also Known As: One Hundred Tenth Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry

Updated: August 26, 2011

In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.

In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.

Infantry regiments formed in Ohio became known as regiments of Ohio Volunteer Infantry. They served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years.  On October 3, 1862, the 110th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry organized at Camp Piqua at Piqua, Ohio. The men in the organization were to serve for three years.

On October 19, 1862, the 110th departed Camp Piqua via railroad for Zanesville, Ohio. The unit promptly left Zanesville via steamboat for Marietta, Ohio, where the regiment boarded trains for Parkersburg, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia). On November 3, 1862, the organization departed Parkersburg for Clarksburg, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia), remaining at this new location until November 25, 1862, when the 110th moved to New Creek, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia), arriving the following day. While at New Creek, the regiment constructed fortifications and practiced drilling. On December 13, 1862, the organization proceeded to Moorefield, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia).

At Moorefield, officials divided the 110th into two sections, with one portion accompanying a Union force towards Romney, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia) and the other engaging in an excursion towards Winchester, Virginia. By January 1, 1863, the entire organization had reunited at Winchester, where the unit conducted various expeditions, including ones to New Market, Front Royal, and Summit Point. Officials also placed the regiment in the 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 8th Army Corps.

On June 13, 1863, the 110th advanced to Kernstown, Virginia, where the organization engaged portions of Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, which was launching an invasion of the North, in the Battle of Kernstown (June 13 and 14, 1863). The Confederates drove the 110th and other Union forces from the battlefield, with the Northerners withdrawing to Harper's Ferry, Virginia. On June 16, 1863, the regiment crossed the Potomac River and encamped at Maryland Heights, Maryland. The 110th remained at this location until July 1, 1863, when the organization traveled to Frederick, Maryland, via Georgetown, Tennallytown, and Washington, DC. At Frederick, officials assigned the regiment to the 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 3rd Army Corps.

Following the Army of Northern Virginia's defeat at the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863), the 110th joined the Union's pursuit of the retreating Confederates. The regiment followed the Southerners through Williamsport, Upperville, and Manassas Gap, reaching Fox's Ford on the Rappahannock River by August 1, 1863. Authorities then ordered the 110th to Washington, DC, where the unit boarded the steamer Mississippi for New York, New York. The regiment was to assist Union officials in ending the draft riots occurring in the city. Upon reaching New York, the organization first encamped at Governor's Island and then moved to Carroll Park in South Brooklyn.

On September 6, 1863, the 110th returned to the frontlines, arriving at Fox's Ford. The organization next escorted a supply train to Culpeper, Virginia and, on October 10, 1863, advanced to the Rappahannock River, marching through Centerville, Bristow, and Catlett's Station, Virginia. On November 7, 1863, the regiment crossed the Rappahannock River and, the following day, captured approximately thirty-five prisoners. The unit then moved to Brandy Station, where Confederate artillery shelled the regiment, but the 110th still occupied the Southerners' position. Officials detached four companies of the 110th to act as a train guard, while the majority of the regiment took part in the Battle of Locust Grove (November 27-29, 1863), having five men killed and twenty more wounded. The entire regiment then re-formed at Brandy Station, entering winter quarters on December 3, 1863. In March 1864, officials assigned the 110th to the 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 6th Corps.

On May 4, 1864, the 110th embarked upon General Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign, crossing the Rapidan River and assuming a position on the Union right in the Wilderness. From May 5-7, 1864, the Battle of the Wilderness occurred, with Confederate soldiers forcing the regiment to withdraw to Spotsylvania Court House on the engagement's third day. One week later, after continuous skirmishing, the 110th reoccupied its former position. The regiment continued to skirmish with Confederate forces as the unit advanced through Guinea Station, and Chesterfield Station. From June 1-12, 1864, the 110th participated in the Battle of Cold Harbor, having five men killed and thirty-four more wounded on June 3 alone. On June 14, 1864, the regiment advanced to Bermuda Hundred, Virginia and, five days later, marched towards Petersburg, Virginia, engaging the enemy on June 16, 1864 along the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad. A few days later, the 110th advanced to the Petersburg and Weldon railroad, returning to the organization's former position near Petersburg on July 2, 1864.

Upon the 110th's return to Petersburg, officials quickly ordered the regiment to Monocacy Junction to assist Union forces in repulsing Confederate General Jubal Early's advance on Washington, DC. The 110th reached Monocacy Junction on July 9, 1864, arriving in time to fight in the Battle of Monocacy this same day. Early's army drove the Union force from the battlefield, with the 110th having four men killed, seventy-four wounded, and fifty-three soldiers captured or missing. The regiment withdrew to Ellicott's Mills, arriving on July 10, 1864 and moving to Baltimore, Maryland the following day. On July 14, 1864, the organization relocated to Washington, DC and, the next day, advanced to the Shenandoah Valley in western Virginia. The 110th returned to Washington on July 23, 1864. Three days later, the organization returned to the Shenandoah Valley, arriving at Healltown, Virginia on July 29, 1864. The next day, the regiment withdrew to Frederick, Maryland.

On August 10, 1864, the 110th began an advance to Cedar Creek, Virginia, arriving two days later. The regiment engaged in numerous skirmishes with Confederates, before escorting a train to Charlestown, Virginia on August 16, 1864. The organization next withdrew to Bolivar Heights, before returning to Charlestown on August 29, 1864, driving Southern forces from the community. On September 3, 1864, the 110th advanced to Clifton Farm, constructing fortifications, and on September 19, 1864, participated in the Battle of Opequon. Following this Union victory, the regiment joined the Northern pursuit of the retreating Confederates. At the Battle of Fisher's Hill (September 21-22, 1864), the 110th captured four artillery pieces and approximately one hundred prisoners. The regiment continued on the pursuit of the Southerners to Mount Crawford, Virginia, when the organization returned to Harper's Ferry. On October 6, 1864, the 110th departed Harper's Ferry, marching through Strasburg, Front Royal, and Ashby's Gap, reaching Cedar Creek on October 14, 1864. At the Battle of Cedar Creek (October 19, 1864), the regiment helped blunt the initially successful Confederate assault. In the battle, the 110th had six men killed, twenty-eight wounded, and two soldiers missing or captured. The organization remained at Cedar Creek until November 9, 1864, when the unit moved to Kernstown, Virginia and constructed winter quarters. During 1864, the 110th's commanding officer issued the following reports:

HDQRS. 11OTH OHIO VOLUNTEERS, Camp in the Field, September 7, 1864.

LIEUT.:

June 13, we evacuated the works after dark, leaving a strong skirmish line to cover the movement, and marched all night and most of the following day; crossed the Chickahominy and halted for the night. Marched at 4 o'clock on the morning of the 14th, passed Charles City Court-House, and rested for the night. Marched a short distance on the 15th. On the 16th moved close to James River and threw up breastworks, which we left in the evening. Marched to Wyanoke Landing and embarked on board the U. S. transport steamer. We steamed up James River, passed City Point just after dark, and landed at Point of Rocks, on the Appomattox, where we remained until daylight, when we marched about three miles and occupied fortifications at Bermuda Hundred. About 1 o'clock in the night we moved out with the balance of the brigade and formed for the purpose of assaulting the enemy's works. The project was abandoned and we returned inside the fortifications. On our way back the enemy's pickets, discovering the movement, opened fire, but did us no harm. We left the fortifications at Bermuda Hundred Sunday evening, 19th, crossed the Appomattox on a pontoon bridge at Point of Rocks, arriving near Petersburg after dark and remained for the night. On the 20th we remained quiet, the shells from one of the enemy's forts passing along the front of our lines. On the evening of the 21st we marched about six miles, crossing the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad. On the evening of the 22d we charged the enemy's lines and drove them before us. In this charge we had 4 men wounded. On the afternoon of the 23d we erected breast-works, when we were ordered to the left to support the First Brigade, their skirmishers having been driven back. After the firing had ceased we moved back and occupied the position we had left the day before. On the 24th threw up works a little farther to the front, and went into camp. From the 24th to the 28th we remained inside of works, except when on picket or guard duty. On the 29th marched about six miles to Reams' Station, on Petersburg and Weldon Railroad, where we remained all night tearing up the track. Two hundred of the One hundred and tenth were sent on picket. On the evening of June 30 commenced our return, and after marching three miles halted and rested for the night.

On July 1 remained quiet during the day and night, and on the morning of the 2d returned to our old position near Petersburg and occupied the works previously occupied by the Second Division, Sixth Army Corps. On the 3d, 4th, and 5th remained quiet, and on the 6th day of July marched to City Point, where we embarked on board the U. S. transport City of Albany, for Baltimore, Md.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

O. H. BINKLEY,

Lieut.-Col. 110th Ohio Volunteers, Cmdg. Regt.

Lieut. JOHN A. GUMP,

Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen.,  2d Brig., 3d Div., 6th Army Corps.

HDQRS. 110TH OHIO VOLUNTEERS, Camp in the Field, Va., September 27, 1864.

LIEUT.: In obedience to orders from headquarters Second Brigade, Third Division, Sixth Army Corps, I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by the One hundred and tenth Regt. in the engagements of the Opequon and Fisher's Hill.

On the 19th of September, at 2 a. m., by command of Col. J. Warren Keifer, commanding Second Brigade, the One hundred and tenth Regiment, under my command, broke camp at Clifton, and, with the balance of the brigade, marched toward Winchester. After crossing the Opequon and arriving within two miles and a half of the latter place lines of battle were formed, the One hundred and tenth being the extreme right of the second line of the Second Brigade and connecting on its left with the One Hundred and twenty-second Ohio Regt. About two hours after we had formed the Nineteenth Corps came up and formed on prolongation on our right. About 12 m. the order was given to advance. We charged the enemy's lines, driving them back until, by some means, the connection on our right was broken, and we, in turn, were compelled to fall back a short distance. At this juncture the First Division, which had been held in reserve, came up to our support. We then, by direction of Col. Keifer, took a position under fire a little farther to the left, when I threw out a strong skirmish line, under command of Capt. Shellenberger, sufficient to cover the whole front of the brigade. Skirmishing was kept up for about two hours, when we were informed by Gen. Sheridan, who came the enemy's left. We then charged with the balance of the line, completely routing the enemy. My skirmishers passed through Winchester, driving the enemy before them and then rejoined the regiment on Winchester Heights, with the loss of only one man wounded. After dark we marched through Winchester and rested for the night near the city. In this engagement Capt.'s Van Eaton and Trimble and Lieut.'s Simes and Deeter were severely wounded; the latter has since died of his wounds; also 7 enlisted men killed and 43 wounded.

On the morning of the 20th we resumed our march and arrived near Strasburg, a distance of eighteen miles, in the afternoon, and found the enemy in strong position on Fisher's Hill. In the afternoon of the 21st the regiment, with the balance of the brigade, took a position about three miles to the night of Strasburg and during the night threw up breast-works. On the 22d, at about 12 m., the left wing of the regiment, under command of Maj. Spangler, was placed on the skirmish line. Skirmishing was kept up until about 2 o'clock, when the line made a charge and took the hill in front, which they held until evening, when a grand charge was made and the enemy driven at every point. They ran in wild confusion, leaving everything behind them, and were followed all night.

Both officers and men behaved well, some of them performing deeds of valor seldom excelled. Lieut. Robert W. Wiley, of Company B, acting aide-de-camp to the colonel commanding, with William Wise and Elias A. Barr, of Company I, and O. A. Ashbrook, of Company I, One hundred and twenty-sixth Ohio Volunteers, captured one captain and twenty men at one time. The regiment captured four pieces of artillery.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

O. H. BINKLEY,

Lieut.-Col. 110th Ohio Volunteers.

Lieut. JOHN A. GUMP,

Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., 2d Brig., 3d Div., 6th Army Corps.

HDQRS. 110TH OHIO VOLUNTEERS, Camp at Cedar Creek, Va., November 2, 1864.

CAPT.: In compliance with orders I have the honor to report the following part taken by the One hundred and tenth Regt. in the battle of Cedar Creek:

Just before daylight on the 19th of October firing was heard along our picket-lines. By order of Col. Keifer, the One hundred and tenth Regiment, with the balance of the brigade, was immediately put under arms and awaited orders. In about an hour's time it was discovered that the enemy had succeeded in turning the left of the Eighth Corps, having taken it by surprise, and that the whole line, together with that of the Nineteenth Corps, was rapidly giving way. The Sixth Corps was ordered up to check the advancing foe, the Second Brigade forming the extreme right of the brigade. We advanced to a stone wall, near corps headquarters, where we were met by a severe fire from the front and from the left flank. The destructiveness of the fire and the falling back of the broken lines in our front caused us to ball back a short distance and become temporarily detached from the brigade. The enemy continued to advance and the regiment, with others, fell back slowly, making frequent stands in order to check his advance as much as possible, until we reached a point where a decisive stand could be made. We continued to move back in this manner for about a mile, when we rejoined the brigade and with it moved back to where the final stand was made. At about 3 p. m. the One hundred and tenth Regt. and a detachment of the One hundred and thirty-eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, under my command, were deployed as skirmishers and advanced toward the edge of the woods, in which the Third Division was then lying. About 5 o'clock I received orders to advancing at the same time. After advancing about 400 yards the whole of both lines halted. Rapid firing was kept up for some time, when we again advanced across a corn-field, where the lines again halted and continued firing until the enemy gave way along the whole line. The One hundred and tenth, with the balance of the troops, followed the retreating and demoralized foe until we reached our old camp from which we had been driven in the morning.

In the operations of the day the regiment lost 5 enlisted men killed and 27 wounded.

During the early part of the engagement Capt. W. Devenney, while nobly discharging his duty, fell mortally wounded. Capt. Shellenberger was slightly wounded late in the day.

Both officers and men behaved with marked coolness and bravery during the whole engagement. One of the enemy's battle-flags fell into the hands of a member of Company K, but was afterward given up to an officer of a New York regiment in the Nineteenth Corps who claimed to have the first to it.

I have the honor to remain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

O. H. BINKLEY,

Lieut.-Col. 110th Ohio Volunteers, Comdg. Regt.

Capt. J. J. BRADSHAG,

Act. Asst. Adjt. Gen., 2d Brig., 3d Div., 6th Army Corps.

On December 3, 1864, the 110th departed Cedar Creek for Washington, DC. At the nation's capital, the regiment boarded a steamer, disembarked at City Point, Virginia, and advanced to the Petersburg and Weldon railroad near Petersburg, arriving on December 6, 1864. The organization again built winter quarters, but officials dispatched the 110th to a position between Fort Fisher and Fort Welch on February 9, 1865, where the unit built its final winter quarters of the war.

On March 25 and April 2, 1865, the 110th participated in assaults against the Confederate lines at Petersburg. Following the Southern withdrawal from this city, the regiment joined in the Union's pursuit of the retreating Confederates. The organization fought at the Battle of Sailor's Creek, Virginia (April 6, 1865) and was present at Confederate General Robert E. Lee's and the Army of Northern Virginia's surrender at Appomattox Court House, Virginia (April 9, 1865). The 110th's commanding officer issued the following reports regarding the regiment's movements in late March and early April 1865.

HDQRS. 110TH OHIO VOLUNTEERS, April 16, 1865.

CAPT.: In compliance with orders I have the honor to make the following report of the part taken by the One hundred and tenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry in the attack upon the enemy's picket-line, March 25, 1865:

On the 25th, at about 1 p.m., the picket-line in front of the Second Brigade, under the direction of Lieut.-Col. Damon, of the Tenth Vermont Volunteers, received orders to attack and carry the rebel picket-line in front. The One hundred and tenth and One hundred and twenty-second Ohio Regiments, under my command, were sent out as a support, with instructions that if the picket-line failed to take that of the enemy the two regiments should advance and take it. When the order was given for the picket-line to advance, only a portion of it went forward, and the line was not taken. I then ordered the two regiments forward on the double-quick with bayonets fixed, and would have carried the enemy's line, which was strongly fortified, but when we had gotten within about 150 yards of the works the shortness of our line exposed us to a severe flank fire, and we were compelled to fall back a few rods to a line of rifle-pits. Other troops of the brigade were then sent out by Gen. Keifer and formed on our right and left, making the line much longer, which had the effect to draw the fire from our flanks. Another charge was then made under a destructive fire, and the enemy's lines taken, with nearly all their pickets, most of whom threw down their arms and surrendered. The One hundred and tenth Regt. in the assault had 4 enlisted men killed and 16 wounded.

Brevet Lieut.-Col. Spangler was severely wounded through the thigh.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

O. H. BINKLEY,

Brevet Col. 110th Ohio Volunteers, Cmdg. Regt.

Capt. WILLIAM L. SHAW,

Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., 2d Brig., 3d Div., Sixth Army Corps.

HDQRS. 110TH OHIO VOLUNTEERS, April 10, 1865.

CAPT.: In compliance with orders, I have the honor to make the following report of the part taken by the One hundred and tenth Ohio Volunteers in the assault of Sunday, April 2, 1865, upon the enemy's works in front of Petersburg, Va.

The One hundred and tenth Regt. formed the right of the front line, connecting on its left with the Sixth Maryland Regt. The regiment was commanded by Capt. William D. Shellenberger, I being in charge of the picket-line as corps officer of the day. When the signal for the advance was fired from Fort Fisher the regiment moved forward with the balance of the line, and was one of the first to plant its colors upon the enemy's works. Before reaching the enemy's works Capt. Shellenberger was severely wounded in the left arm and was compelled to retire from the field. Capt. Elem Harter was also severely wounded in the arm. Capt. H. H. Stevens was shot dead after he had gotten inside of the enemy's works and was in the act of charging a battery. Four pieces of artillery were captured by members of the regiment, 400 prisoners, and two flags. The flags were captured by Private Isaac James, Company H, and Sergt. Francis M. McMillen, Company C; the latter also captured one piece of artillery.

Capt. George P. Boyer made himself conspicuous by his activity and bravery. Adjt. William H. Harry, Lieuts. John T. Sherer, A. A. Hubbard, D. S. French, and Amos Shaul deserve great credit for the manner in which they conducted themselves during the engagement. First Sergt. John W. Hays, commanding Company A, and Sergt. Richard Pearson, commanding Company G, are entitled to mention for their good conduct during the assault, in which the latter was severely wounded. Sergt. Thomas Goe, Company D, in charge of three men, caused 130 rebels to surrender to him; among those were 3 captains and 4 lieutenants. Corpl. Keeran McKenny, Company C, was the first to reach and capture a four-gun battery. Corpl. Calvin M. Espy, in a hand-to-hand combat, overpowered two rebels who refused to surrender to him. A great many others performed deeds of a similar character, but to mention all would occupy too much space.

The regiment in the assault had 1 commissioned officer killed and 2 wounded, 3 enlisted men killed and 22 wounded; total, 28.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

O. H. BINKLEY,

Brevet Col. 110th Ohio Volunteers, Cmdg. Regt.

Capt. W. L. SHAW,

Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., 2d Brig., 3d Div., 6th Army Corps.

HDQRS. 110TH OHIO VOLUNTEERS, April 15, 1865.

CAPT.: In compliance with orders, I have the honor to make the following report of the operations of the One hundred and tenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry from April 3, 1865:

After the assault upon the enemy's works in front of Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865, in which the One hundred and tenth Regt. took a prominent part, and of which I made mention in a former report, the regiment joined in the pursuit of the enemy, but did not become engaged with him until the 6th, when, near Little Sailor's Creek, we met the enemy in force. Lines were immediately formed, the One hundred and tenth Regt. constituting the right of the first line, Companies A and F being deployed as skirmishers to the right. We advanced through a narrow strip of woods, where we were met by a severe fire of shell and grape, with musketry, which caused a temporary halt; but we again advanced, still exposed to the fire of grape and canister, driving the enemy before us across a large, open field, compelling the enemy's artillery to leave its position, and capturing a number of wagons, with some ammunition. Had the men been fresh, instead of being fatigued from the day's march, I have no doubt we could have taken the enemy's battery.

In this charge the regiment was more fortunate than usual, having only one man wounded.

The regiment was, with its brigade, in pursuit of the rebel army at the time it was surrendered by the rebel general, Robert E. Lee.

The regiment then marched, with balance of the troops, to its present position.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

O. H. BINKLEY,

Brevet Col. 110th Ohio Volunteers, Cmdg. Regt.

Capt. W. L. SHAW,

Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., 2d Brig., 3d Div., 6th Army Corps.

Following Lee's surrender, the 110th then marched to Richmond, Virginia and Washington, DC. On June 25, 1865, officials mustered the regiment out of service at Washington, DC. The organization next traveled to Tod Barracks, in Columbus, Ohio, and authorities discharged the 110th's members from the military.

During the 110th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry's term of service, 117 men, including ten officers, died on the battlefield. An additional 113 men, including two officers, succumbed to disease or accidents.

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"110th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry," Ohio Civil War Central, 2014, Ohio Civil War Central. 2 Sep 2014 <http://www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=859>

APA Style

"110th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry." (2014) In Ohio Civil War Central, Retrieved September 2, 2014, from Ohio Civil War Central: http://www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=859

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