May 23–26, 1864
Fought between May 23 and 26, 1864, the Battle of North Anna was an engagement in Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign between the Union Army of the Potomac and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia.
On March 10, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant as General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States. Grant brought with him, from his successes in the western theater of the war, a reputation for the doggedness Lincoln was seeking. Unlike previous Union generals, whose leadership was marked their own timidity, Grant was tenacious. Upon his arrival in Washington, Grant drafted a plan to get the various Union armies in the field to act in concert. He also devised his Overland Campaign to invade east-central Virginia. Unlike previous campaigns into that area, Grant's focused on defeating Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, rather than capturing or occupying geographic locations. Grant instructed General George Meade, who commanded the Army of the Potomac, "Wherever Lee goes, there you will go also." Grant realized that with the superior resources he had at his disposal, Lee was destined to lose a war of attrition, as long he was persistently engaged.
On May 4, 1864, Grant launched the Overland Campaign when the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rappahannock and Rapidan Rivers, occupying an area locally known as the Wilderness. The Wilderness was a tangled area of dense forest and undergrowth that had hampered the maneuverability of Federal forces during previous Union defeats at Fredericksburg (December 11 to 15, 1862) and Chancellorsville (April 30 to May 6, 1863). Major General George Meade commanded the Army of the Potomac, but as General-in-Chief of the Armies, Grant chose to accompany Meade's army in the field so that he could personally supervise overall campaign operations. Grant hoped to use the Wilderness to screen his operations, but he also planned to pass through it before it impeded the Union army as it had done before. Hoping to see history repeat itself, Confederate General Robert E. Lee hastened to engage the Federals before they could escape the Wilderness. On May 5 and 6, the two armies met along the two plank roads that passed through the tangled forest. The Battle of the Wilderness was one of the more gruesome engagements of the war, as raging fires in the thick undergrowth burned many of the wounded soldiers to death. When the battle ended, Grant had suffered the same fate as Pope and Hooker before him. Lee had inflicted about 18,000 casualties on Meade's army, while suffering only about 7,800 casualties himself. Unlike his predecessors, however, Grant did not retreat. Rather, on May 7, he ordered Meade to move his army deeper into Confederate territory, southeast towards Spotsylvania Court House.
Lee recognized the critical consequences of allowing Grant to position Meade's army between Lee's army and Richmond. Thus, on May 8, the race was on to Spotsylvania. Unfortunately for the Federals, the Rebels reached the community first, enabling them to establish superior defensive positions. From May 8 through May 21, the two armies built networks of complex trenches and engaged in a series of give-and-take battles around Spotsylvania that again resulted in high casualties. On May 12 and 13, a Union attack at a place known as the Bloody Angle nearly split Lee's army in half, but the Confederates regrouped and repulsed the Federals in a fight that continued for nearly twenty hours. Unable to break Lee's lines, Grant disengaged once more and ordered Meade to move his army southeast on May 21.
Lee responded by moving his army in the same direction, and the two armies raced for the North Anna River. Again, the Army of Northern Virginia was quicker and arrived on the south side of the river in time to impede a Federal crossing. The Battle of North Anna began on the evening of May 23, when three Union brigades, under the command of Winfield Scott Hancock, captured an earthen fort on the north side of the river as well as a bridge that spanned the river. At the same time, Northern forces, commanded by Gouverneur K. Warren, began to ford the North Anna River four miles upstream from Hancock's men. Confederate soldiers under A.P. Hill almost destroyed Warren's force but withdrew in confusion when a Confederate brigade broke and retreated.
Meade's army was now on the south bank of the river, but the Northerners were walking into a trap. Lee had positioned his army in an inverted "V" formation, between the two crossings, with the tip at the river. The formation would enable Lee's army to fight a holding action on one side of the "V" while attacking on the other side. Fortunately for the Federals, Lee took ill, and the trap was never sprung. Upon realizing his tenuous position, Grant had the army temporarily entrench and, starting on May 26, march off to the southeast once again.
Ohio units that participated in the Battle of North Anna included:
- 4th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- 8th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- 60th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- 110th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- 122nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- 126th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- Battery H, 1st Ohio Light Artillery Regiment
- 2nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Cavalry
- 6th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Cavalry
At the Battle of North Anna, the Union army suffered approximately 1,973 casualties, including 223 soldiers killed, while the Confederate army suffered 2,017 casualties, including 304 soldiers killed. Technically, the Battle of North Anna was a Confederate victory, as Southern forces remained on the battlefield after Northern soldiers evacuated, but Lee's Army of Northern Virginia failed to stop Grant's and Meade's Army of the Potomac's advance further south. The Battle of North Anna also was the only major engagement in Grant's Overland Campaign where the Southerners suffered greater casualties than the Northerners.