Fought on the morning of September 19, 1864, between Philip Sheridan's Army of the Shenandoah and Jubal Early's Army of the Valley, the Battle of Opequon, also known as the Battle of Third Winchester, was the bloodiest engagement of the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864.
On March 12, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln appointed native Ohioan Ulysses S. Grant as General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States of America. Upon his arrival in Washington, Grant drafted a plan to get the various Union armies in the field to act in concert and strike the Confederacy from several directions. Grant would travel with Major General George Meade's Army of the Potomac in pursuit of General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia in the Richmond, Virginia area; Ohioan Major General William T. Sherman would march three Federal armies south from Chattanooga, Tennessee to capture Atlanta, Georgia; and Major General Franz Sigel would invade western Virginia's Shenandoah Valley to cut off supplies to Lee's army and to prevent any Confederate attempts to attack Meade's flank.
As Grant pressed Lee in Eastern Virginia during the spring and summer, the Confederate general devised a plan to divert Union forces away from his army. Lee designated Lieutenant General Jubal Early's corps as the Army of the Valley, and in June, he ordered Early to re-deploy his army from Petersburg, Virginia to the Shenandoah Valley. On June 17 and 18, Early's army defeated Major General David Hunter's Union forces at the Battle of Lynchburg, leaving control of the valley in Confederate hands. Early then launched his own offensive, invading Maryland and eventually threatening Washington, DC, before being forced to retreat back into the Shenandoah Valley.
Early's successes in Maryland threatened President Lincoln's re-election bid in November. Coupled with Grant's mounting casualty totals in Eastern Virginia, Southerners had good reason to hope that the Northern electorate might opt for a peace candidate and a negotiated settlement with the Confederacy to end the war. Outside of the political arena, Confederate operations in the valley had become a source of irritation to Grant. Consequently, on August 1, Grant sent Ohioan Major General Philip Sheridan to the valley and, on August 8, placed him in charge of the newly created Army of the Shenandoah. Grant's orders for Sheridan were twofold: destroy Early's army and to "Do all the damage to railroads and crops you can. Carry off stock of all descriptions… so as to prevent further planting. If the war is to last another year, we want the Shenandoah Valley to remain a barren waste."
At first, Sheridan was slow to act because false intelligence reports led him to believe that Early's army was much larger than it really was. Early mistook Sheridan's restraint as a sign that he was dealing with another timid Union general. As a result, Early brashly spread his forces thin as he conducted raids on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. On September 16, Sheridan received more accurate intelligence regarding the size and deployment of Early's army and determined to engage Early near Winchester, Virginia.
At 4:30 a.m. on September 19, Sheridan's army advanced from the east along the Berryville Road toward Winchester. Along the way, his soldiers were forced to travel through a long narrow canyon. The Union cavalry quickly passed through the narrow passage and began sweeping away Confederate pickets on the other side. The remainder of the Union force, however, bogged down as foot-soldiers, artillery and supply trains tried to negotiate the narrow canyon. Early used the time to concentrate his small army and block the turnpike.
The bottleneck delayed the Union offensive until almost noon, when Union Brigadier General William Emory's 19th Corps attacked Major General John B. Gordon's division. The initial assault was successful, but Gordon's men rallied and repulsed the Federals, sending them fleeing toward the rear. Simultaneous with Emory's assault, Union Major General Horatio Wright's 6th Corps advanced against Confederate Major General Stephen D. Ramseur's division farther to the south. Ramseur's division collapsed, but during the ensuing Union advance, a gap developed between Emory’s and Wright's corps. Confederate Major General Robert E. Rodes quickly exploited the situation, leading his division in a counterattack that began at approximately 1:30 p.m. During the attack, Rodes was killed by an exploding shell, but Brigadier General Cullen A. Battle took command and continued to lead the Confederate surge. Sheridan deployed Brigadier General David A. Russell's division to prevent the Rebels from splitting his army. Russell was mortally wounded as his soldiers scurried to fill the gap. Brigadier General Emory Upton assumed command of the division and mounted a vigorous counterattack that stemmed the Confederate tide.
As the fighting slowed in the center, Sheridan sent Brigadier General George Crook's 8th Corps to find Early's left flank. At the same time, Brigadier General James H. Wilson's cavalry was flanking the Confederate right. As Early consolidated his forces toward the middle, Sheridan ordered a general advance in the late afternoon. Faced with an onslaught from a much larger army, the Confederate resistance melted away. By nightfall, Sheridan had possession of Winchester, and Early's army was retreating to the south.
The Battle of Opequon was the bloodiest engagement of the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864. Sheridan's force of approximately 39,000 soldiers suffered 5,000 casualties (killed, wounded, and captured or missing). Early suffered fewer total casualties (3,610), but he lost one-fourth of his army of approximately 12,000 men. The battle was also a turning point in the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864. Early retreated to Fisher's Hill, where the two armies met again two days later, but Sheridan had seized the initiative. Within little more than a month, he drove Early out of the valley. The Shenandoah Valley ceased to be a source of sustenance for the Confederacy, and Early’s army was no longer an agent of distraction for Grant's campaign against Lee.
Ohio unites that participated in the Battle of Opequon included:
23rd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
34th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
36th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
91st Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
110th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
116th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
122nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
123rd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
126th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
Battery L of the 1st Ohio Light Artillery Regiment
2nd Ohio Volunteer Cavalry Regiment
8th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry Regiment
Cite this Entry
"Battle of Opequon," Ohio Civil War Central, 2020, Ohio Civil War Central. 6 Apr 2020 <http://www.www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=421>
"Battle of Opequon." (2020) In Ohio Civil War Central, Retrieved April 6, 2020, from Ohio Civil War Central: http://www.www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=421
- Abraham Lincoln
- Army of Northern Virginia
- Army of the Potomac (USA)
- Army of the Shenandoah (USA) (1864)
- Battle of Lynchburg
- David Hunter
- Franz Sigel
- George Crook
- George G. Meade
- Horatio G. Wright
- Jubal Early
- Philip H. Sheridan
- Robert E. Lee
- Shenandoah Valley Campaigns of 1864
- Sheridan's Valley Campaign
- Ulysses S. Grant
- William T. Sherman