September 27, 1824 – September 29, 1862
Murdered by fellow Union General Jefferson C. Davis in 1862, William "Bull" Nelson simultaneously served as a major general in the U.S. Volunteer Army and as a lieutenant commander in the U.S. Navy during the Civil War.
William Nelson was born in Maysville, Kentucky, on September 27, 1824. He was the third of four children and youngest of three sons born to Thomas Washington Nelson and Frances "Francie" Doniphan Nelson. The elder Nelson was a prominent physician who also served in the Kentucky state legislature and on the board of trustees of Transylvania University.
Raised in an affluent household, William Nelson received his primary education at the Maysville Academy. At age thirteen, in 1840, he enrolled at Norwich University, a military school in Vermont. After studying at Norwich for two years, Nelson received an appointment as a midshipman in the U.S. Navy on January 28, 1840.
Assigned for duty aboard the Delaware in April 1840, Nelson spent the better part of the next five years sailing around the globe on various tours of duty. During that period he also served on the Yorktown, Shark, Erie, and Falmouth.
When the Naval School (now the United States Naval Academy) was established in 1845, Nelson received an appointment to the first class of fifty midshipmen. A few months later, Nelson volunteered for naval duty when war with Mexico erupted. Although he had been enrolled at the Naval School for less than a year, Nelson passed a battery of examinations, graduated on July 1, 1846, and was assigned the rank of "passed midshipman" (a midshipman who had passed the lieutenant's exam and was eligible for promotion to lieutenant as soon as there was a vacancy in that grade).
During the Mexican-American War, Nelson first saw action with the fleet that supported General Winfield Scott's invasion of Central Mexico. He then went ashore as a member of Naval Battery No. 5 and participated in the bombardment and Siege of Vera Cruz in March 1847. Subsequently, in June 1847, he served as a member of a flotilla of nine warships during Commodore Matthew C. Perry's Tabasco Expedition.
Following the Mexican-American War, Nelson served in Florida, on Lake Erie, and in the Mediterranean Sea. On September 19, 1854, he was promoted to sailing master and shortly thereafter, on April 18, 1855, he achieved the rank of lieutenant. In 1858, Nelson served aboard the U.S.S. Niagara on a mission to return native Africans who had been illegally transported to North America aboard the slave ship Echo.
When the Civil War erupted, Nelson visited the White House and presented a plan to President Abraham Lincoln to arm Unionists in Kentucky. Lincoln approved the plan of his fellow Kentucky native and agreed to furnish Nelson with 5,000 muskets to distribute to loyalists in the Bluegrass State. By early June, Nelson had accomplished his mission and he received 5,000 more guns to disburse in Kentucky. Nelson's efforts lifted the resolve of loyalists within the state and helped keep Kentucky in the Union.
On July 1, 1861, Nelson received instructions from the adjutant general of the army to "muster into the service of the United States five regiments of infantry and one regiment of cavalry in East Tennessee, and one regiment of infantry in West Tennessee . . . . You will also, at the same time, muster into the service, or designate some suitable person so to do, in Southeast Kentucky, three regiments of infantry, to be commanded and officered in the same manner as herein provided for the Tennessee regiments." Nelson immediately moved to implement his orders and quickly established Camp Dick Robinson, a training facility about thirty-five miles south of Lexington.
On August 13, Nelson received additional authorization from the war department to "accept and muster in wherever offered regiments for service in Tennessee and Kentucky in such numbers and of such arms as you may consider necessary for the best interests of the country." One month later, on September 16, Nelson was commissioned as a brigadier general in the U.S. Volunteer Army (General Orders, No. 106) and he was placed in command of Federal troops operating in Eastern Kentucky.
In October 1861, Nelson led twelve units on the Big Sandy Expedition to drive Colonel John S. William's Confederate forces out of Eastern Kentucky. On November 8, the two sides engaged at the Battle of Ivy Mountain. Following two days of fighting, Nelson's soldiers prevailed and forced the Rebels to withdraw to Virginia.
On November 9, 1861, the War Department issued General Orders, No. 97, which dissolved the Department of the Cumberland and expanded the Department of the Ohio (including eastern Kentucky) to be commanded by Brigadier General Don Carlos Buell. Nearly one month later, on December 2, 1861, Buell issued Special Orders, No. 19 (Department of the Ohio) organizing the soldiers under his command into five divisions and assigning Nelson to command of the 47th Division.
In February 1862, Buell sent Nelson and his division to Northern Tennessee to help Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant subdue Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River. By the time Nelson arrived, Grant had already captured the Rebel stronghold, opening the way for the occupation of Nashville. Grant ordered Nelson to proceed upriver and occupy the city. On February 25, 1862, Nelson's division marched into Nashville unopposed, making it the first Confederate capital to fall into Union hands during the Civil War. Buell entered Nashville with the remainder of the Army of the Ohio the next day.
Following the fall of Nashville, President Lincoln issued War Order No. 3, which consolidated Major General Henry W. Halleck's command in the West by creating the Department of the Mississippi. The consolidation eliminated the Department of the Ohio and placed Buell and his army under Halleck's command. Soon thereafter, Halleck ordered Ulysses S. Grant to march his Army of Tennessee south to Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, near the Tennessee-Mississippi border, to await the arrival of Buell's Army of the Ohio. Halleck's intention was to consolidate the two armies and, then, to move south to cut the Memphis & Charleston Railroad line at Corinth, Mississippi.
Before Buell arrived at Pittsburg Landing, Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston's Army of the Mississippi (aka Army of Mississippi) surprised Grant's bivouacked forces on the morning of April 6, 1862. In the ensuing confusion, many of the Federal troops fled in panic. Others were able to form lines of battle and mount some resistance, but the Union lines were gradually driven back to a defensive position behind Shiloh Church. As the first day of the Battle of Shiloh came to a conclusion Grant's men found themselves in a precarious situation.
Overnight, Nelson and his men hurried to the battlefield and reinforced Grant's troops. They also secured a landing that enabled Buell to bring the rest of his army across the Tennessee River to Grant's aid. On the morning of April 7, 1862, Grant and Buell launched a counterattack. Outnumbered and running low on ammunition, the Rebels began falling back. Despite several attempts to turn the tide, the Confederates gradually lost the ground that they had captured the previous day. Eventually, the Graycoats began an orderly retreat back to Corinth, Mississippi.
Following the Union victory at the Battle of Shiloh, Major General Halleck assumed personal command of the combined armies of the Ohio, the Mississippi, and the Tennessee. On April 29, 1862, Halleck ordered his massive force of 120,000 soldiers to advance in three columns against the strategically important rail hub at Corinth. During the march on Corinth, Nelson's 4th Division bolstered the center column, which was manned by the Army of the Ohio. From April 29-May 30, 1862, Nelson and his men participated in the successful one-month-long siege of the Confederate stronghold, forcing yet another Confederate retreat.
On August 2, 1862, the War Department published General Orders, No. 93 announcing Nelson's promotion to Major General in the Volunteer Army, effective July 17, 1862. While serving in the Volunteer Army, Nelson remained in the U.S. Navy and on July 16, 1862, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant commander.
Meanwhile, Rebel leaders were smarting from the string of Union victories in the West. On July 31, 1862, Major General Braxton Bragg and Major General Kirby Smith met at Chattanooga, Tennessee, and developed plans to reverse Confederate fortunes by launching a two-pronged invasion of Kentucky. On August 14, 1862, Smith put their stratagem into action when he headed north out of Knoxville with a force of roughly 15,000 soldiers. Two days later he passed through the Cumberland Gap into Kentucky. Leaving roughly 9,000 soldiers behind to guard the gap, Smith headed north with 6,000 seasoned infantrymen and 850 cavalry troopers that would soon be known as the Confederate Army of Kentucky.
As Smith moved north, Buell sent Nelson back to Kentucky to "assume command of the troops arriving in Kentucky, to repel the threatened invasion of Kentucky . . ." When Nelson arrived in Louisville, on August 23, 1862, he learned that the War Department had issued General Orders, No. 112 on August 19, re-creating the Department of the Ohio under the command of Major General Horatio G. Wright. Unsure of who he reported to in the new command structure, Nelson wired General-in-Chief Henry W. Halleck on the day he arrived in Louisville asking for instructions. Halleck responded on August 23 that "You and the officers under your command will remain in the new Department of Ohio, and render all possible assistance to General Wright in driving the enemy from Kentucky."
Wright quickly dispatched Nelson to Lexington and placed him in command of Major General Lew Wallace's troops in Central Kentucky with instructions to thwart Smith's advancing Rebel army. When Nelson arrived at Lexington on August 24, 1862, he ascertained that he had eight infantry regiments and one cavalry regiment in the vicinity of Richmond, Kentucky, about twenty-seven miles south of Lexington. Three days later he complained to Wright that “there is no discipline among these troops. Straggling, marauding, plundering is the rule; good conduct the exception." Despite anxieties about the fitness of his soldiers, Nelson went on to report that he had organized them into two brigades commanded by Brigadier General Mahlon Dickerson Manson and Brigadier General Charles Cruft. By August 30, 1862, Wright had begun referring to the two brigades under Nelson's command as the Army of Kentucky.
Soon after he arrived at Lexington, Nelson informed Wright that he feared Kirby Smith "has come up" and Nelson implored his superior to "Send me all the troops possible." Wright promptly went to work trying to get the governors of the surrounding states to provide more soldiers to augment Nelson's force at Richmond. In the meantime, Wright instructed Nelson "If enemy is in force get your troops together, and do not risk a general battle at Richmond unless you are sure of success." Nelson, in turn, ordered his brigade commanders to do the same.
On August 29, 1862, while Nelson was in Lexington, Manson's brigade encountered the lead elements of Smith's army south of Richmond. Despite Nelson's previous instructions to fall back rather than risk a general engagement, Manson decided to attack Smith the next morning. On the other side, Smith chose to do the same.
On the morning of August 30, 1862, the two Armies of Kentucky engaged at the Battle of Richmond. After an early Union advance stalled, the Confederates began pushing the Yankees back. At about 10:30, the confidence of some of the inexperienced Federal troops began to falter. Individual soldiers turned and ran, prompting a mass disorganized retreat. Union officers reorganized their fleeing soldiers at Rogersville, but their attempts to hold a new line proved futile. Soon thereafter, Manson apprised Nelson that "We have had severe battle this morning from 8 to 11; had to fall back, but are in good shape now; will fall back farther, near to town (Richmond). Enemy in large force and perhaps flanking us; some regiments behaved well, some badly. You should come at once with all re-inforcements you can."
Nelson quickly headed south to join his beleaguered army. In his after-action report written the next day, Nelson recalled that "I went on to Richmond, and arrived upon the field about 2 o'clock and found the forces entirely disorganized. After much labor I succeeded in rallying them and forming a new line of battle, but the line was hopelessly broken and scattered and I was left on the field and am now having a ball cut out of my leg."
The Battle of Richmond was a resounding Confederate victory. During the fighting Nelson barely escaped, but most of his 6,500 soldiers were not as fortunate. The Union Army of Kentucky suffered 5,553 casualties, including 206 killed, 844 wounded, and 4,303 captured or missing. On August 31, 1862, Wright dejectedly informed General-in-Chief Halleck that "Nelson has been badly beaten, I fear, in an encounter with the enemy near Richmond, Ky. his force being, as he says, hopelessly broken and scattered." Many Civil War scholars deem the Confederate triumph at the Battle of Richmond as the most complete victory one side had over the other during the entire conflict.
After his defeat at Richmond, Nelson returned to Louisville to recuperate. While there, General Wright charged Nelson with bolstering the city's defenses in anticipation of an assault from Braxton Bragg's Army of the Mississippi, which was moving north through Western Kentucky in tandem with Kirby Smith's incursion into Central Kentucky. To help Nelson accomplish his task, Wright sent Brigadier General Jefferson Columbus Davis (not to be confused with Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis) to Louisville.
In more ways than one, Nelson and Davis were polar opposites. Nelson was a hulk of a man, standing over six feet four inches tall and weighing in excess of 300 pounds. Through his years at sea, he had developed a brutish nature that did not sit well with many of his subordinates and fellow officers. It is uncertain whether his size or his temperament contributed more to his acquisition of the nickname "Bull." Davis, on the other hand, was a small man who weighed only about 125 pounds. As an officer in the regular army, he did not take well to Nelson's notorious bullying. When Nelson upbraided Davis for his failure to perform up to Nelson's expectations, Davis lashed back, prompting Nelson to order him back to Cincinnati. Davis used his dismissal as grounds to travel to Indianapolis and complain to his friend Governor Oliver P. Morton, who was a harsh critic of Nelson.
Upon hearing Davis' grievances, Morton traveled with his maligned colleague to Louisville, along with Captain Thomas W. Gibson, to confront Nelson. On the morning of September 29, 1862, the three men encountered Nelson at the Galt Hotel as the general was finishing his breakfast. An argument ensued that prompted Davis to crumple a nearby card into a ball and dash it in Nelson's face. Nelson responded by slapping Davis and walking away. Humiliated, Davis hastily borrowed Gibson's pistol and followed his tormentor. As Davis approached Nelson, he shot the unarmed general in the chest at point-blank range. Nelson was able to climb the stairs leading to his room before collapsing. After being treated by a doctor and baptized by a minister who was in the hotel, Nelson died one-half hour after he was shot, at 8:30 a.m.
Curiously, Davis was never prosecuted for his crime even though several people witnessed the murder. Davis should have been court-martialed but the military never pursued justice, perhaps because of Morton's influence, or because Davis' services were badly needed in the Western Theater, or because Nelson was generally disliked by other officers. After it became apparent that the military would not act on Nelson's behalf, civilian authorities filed charges in the Jefferson County Circuit Court. By then, Davis had been transferred out of the court's jurisdiction and the matter was never pursued.
On the day following his murder, Nelson was temporarily interred at Cave Hill Cemetery in Louisville. Two months later, his remains were moved to Camp Dick Robinson. On March 8, 1872, his body was moved to its final resting place in his family plot at Maysville Cemetery in Maysville, Kentucky.
- Braxton Bragg
- Don Carlos Buell
- Ulysses S. Grant
- Henry Wager Halleck
- Abraham Lincoln
- Battle of Shiloh
- Edmund Kirby Smith
- Lew Wallace
- Albert Sidney Johnston
- Department of the Ohio
- Winfield Scott
- Mexican-American War
- Army of Tennessee
- Battle of Richmond
- General Orders, No. 97 (Headquarters of the Army)
- Battle of Fort Donelson
- President’s War Order No. 3
- Army of the Ohio 1861?1862
- Army of the Mississippi (CSA)
- Siege of Corinth
- General Orders, No. 93 (U.S. War Department)
- Horatio Gouverneur Wright
- Army of Kentucky (CSA)
- Army of Kentucky (USA)