In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Artillery batteries formed in Ohio became known as batteries of Ohio Volunteer Artillery. They served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. On January 9, 1862, the 10th Ohio Independent Battery of Ohio Volunteer Artillery organized at Xenia, Ohio. The battery mustered into service at Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati, Ohio, on March 3, 1862. The organization was also known as White’s Battery, named after the organization’s commanding officer, Hamilton B. White. The men in the battery were to serve three years.
Upon the 10th mustering into service, officials immediately dispatched the organization to St. Louis, Missouri. The battery remained at this location less than one month, when authorities ordered the unit to Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee. The organization arrived at Pittsburg Landing on April 9, 1862, two days after the Battle of Shiloh concluded. The 10th participated in the Siege of Corinth, Mississippi but saw no action in any of the engagements, as officials assigned the unit to the reserve force. Following the Union’s capture of the important railroad junction, the battery remained at Corinth from June 25, 1863 to mid September 1863, when the 10th advanced to Iuka, Mississippi, where the body performed garrison duty.
On October 1, 1862, the 10th departed Iuka for Corinth, which Confederate forces were threatening. Three days later, the Battle of Corinth II occurred. The battery performed well in this Union victory, having only three men wounded, and joined the Northern pursuit of the retreating Confederates as far as Ripley, Mississippi before returning to Corinth,
In November 1863, the 10th advanced to Grand Junction, Mississippi and then joined General Ulysses S. Grant’s advance towards Vicksburg, Mississippi along the Mississippi Central Railroad. The battery garrisoned Holly Springs, Mississippi for a short period of time before retiring to Memphis, Tennessee in January 1863. On January 21, 1863, the battery advanced to Milliken’s Bend, Louisiana, remaining at this location for one week before moving to Lake Providence. In April 1863, the 10th returned to Milliken’s Bend and then advanced to Grand Gulf, Mississippi. Beginning on May 15, 1863, a portion of the battery served as escort to General William Dwight. These men accompanied Dwight to General Ulysses S. Grant’s headquarters at Champion Hill, Mississippi. On the return trip to Grand Gulf, the Northern soldiers captured thirty-four Confederates.
On June 13, 1863, the 10th joined the Union Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi, with the battery garrisoning Fort Ransom beginning on June 18, 1863. In late June 1863, the organization moved to Big Black, Mississippi and, upon the North’s capture of Vicksburg on July 4, 1863, advanced to Jackson, Mississippi to participate in the Union’s siege of that city. The battery, however, moved to Champion Hill the day after arriving at Jackson to guard the Northern army’s communication lines. On July 28, 1863, the 10th returned to Vicksburg and performed garrison duty during the rest of the summer and autumn 1863 and the winter of 1863-1864. In early 1864, many of the battery’s original members reenlisted and received a thirty-day furlough to their homes in Ohio.
On April 8, 1864, the 10th moved to Cairo, Illinois. The battery traveled to Memphis from Cairo briefly in late April 1864, before returning to Illinois. On May 9, 1864, the organization traveled to Paducah, Kentucky and then moved up the Tennessee River to Clifton, Tennessee, arriving at this location on May 14, 1864. Two days later, the battery departed Clifton and began a march to Acworth, Georgia. The advance took twenty-four days, and the unit marched through Pulaski, Huntsville, Decatur, Rome, and Kingston. At Acworth, the battery joined the 4th Division, 17th Army Corps. In early June, the 10th embarked upon General William T. Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign. The battery fought in the Battles of Kennesaw Mountain and Nicojack Creek. In mid July 1864, the organization advanced to Marietta, Georgia, where the unit served on garrison duty until early November 1864.
On November 2, 1864, the 10th traveled via Chattanooga, Tennessee to Nashville, Tennessee, arriving on November 14, 1864. The battery first encamped at Camp Barry and then garrisoned Fort Gillen. The unit did not participate in the Battle of Nashville (December 15 and 16, 1864). Beginning in late December 1864, the battery served as infantry for two months. On March 13, 1865, officials consolidated the 4th Ohio Independent Battery of Ohio Volunteer Infantry with the 10th. The organization retained the 10th’s name.
On April 1, 1865, officials dispatched the 10th to eastern Tennessee. The battery garrisoned Sweetwater, Tennessee for two weeks before advancing to Loudon, Tennessee. The organization remained at Loudon until early July 1865, when authorities sent the 10th to Camp Dennison. The battery mustered out of service at Camp Dennison on July 17, 1865 and discharged from the service on July 21, 1865.
During the 10th Battery’s term of service, no men died on the battlefield, while eighteen men perished from disease or accidents.