In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Infantry regiments formed in Ohio became known as regiments of Ohio Volunteer Infantry. They served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. In August 1862, seven companies that would help form the 113th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry organized at Camp Chase, at Columbus, Ohio. These companies then traveled to Camp Zanesville at Zanesville, Ohio and then to Camp Dennison near Cincinnati, Ohio. At each location, an additional company joined the 113th. The men in the regiment were to serve three years.
Before the 113th reached full strength, officials ordered the regiment, on December 27, 1862, to Louisville, Kentucky, to defend this city against a feared Confederate attack led by John Hunt Morgan. After spending a few weeks in Louisville, the regiment moved to Mauldraugh’s Hill on the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. The 113th returned to Louisville by the end of January and quickly departed for Nashville, Tennessee.
Upon the 113th reaching Nashville, officials soon dispatched the regiment to Franklin, Tennessee, where it joined the Army of the Cumberland. At Franklin, the 113th participated in several engagements with Confederate forces and helped to fortify the city. The regiment also participated in the Tullahoma Campaign but did not engage the enemy. Following the Tullahoma Campaign, the 113th was stationed at Shelbyville, Tennessee. During the Chattanooga Campaign, the regiment formed part of the Reserve Corps. During the Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia the 113th engaged Confederate forces on the afternoon of the second day. The Confederates drove the entire Union force from the battlefield. In this battle, the 113th had 138 officers and men killed or wounded. The regiment also took part in the siege of Chattanooga, Tennessee. The 113th was part of the reserve line during the Battle of Missionary Ridge and did not actively engage the Confederates in the Union breakout. The regiment did participate in the pursuit of the retreating Confederates and fought an engagement at Stuart’s Creek.
Following the Chattanooga Campaign, the 113th participated in the Knoxville Campaign in east Tennessee, successfully driving Confederate General James Longstreet’s force from the area. The regiment returned to Chattanooga on December 21, 1863 and soon moved to McAfee’s Church and constructed winter quarters. During the winter of 1863-1864, some officers of the 113th returned to Ohio and recruited a tenth company—Company K—finally establishing a full regiment.
During 1864, the 113th was part of General William T. Sherman’s force. It participated in the Atlanta Campaign, fighting in most engagements with the exception of the Battle of Peachtree Creek. At the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, the regiment was among the first units to assault the Confederate position and had ten officers and 153 men wounded or killed. One officer of the regiment concluded that the 113th was under fire eighty-nine days of the 107-day campaign. One of the 113th’s officers filed the following report after the Atlanta Campaign’s completion:
Report of Capt. Toland Jones, One hundred and thirteenth Ohio Infantry.
HDQRS. 113TH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY,
Near Atlanta, Ga., September 10, 1864.
CAPT.: Herewith please find report of the operations of this regiment from the 2d of May, 1864, to September 2, 1864, the day on which Atlanta was occupied by our forces.
The regiment moved from its winter cantonment at Rossville, Ga., May 2, to Ringgold, under command of Lieut. Col. D. B. Warner, in connection with its brigade and division, and went into position in front of Ringgold Gap. From 3d to 7th remained in camp, but changed position to east side of gap. 7th and 8th, marched to Tunnel Hill and Mill Creek Gap, and formed line of battle with Seventy-eighth Illinois on our right, with skirmishers in front, the balance of brigade in rear as supports. We charged and took the isolated hills in front of the gap, losing 1 man killed, and took position on the last hill, covering the mouth of the gap. 9th to 12th, position unchanged, but continued skirmishing. 12th, marched to mouth of Snake Creek Gap. 13th, marched through gap in the night and encamped. 14th, took position in front of Resaca in support of Ninety-eighth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, One hundred and eighth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and Thirty-fourth Illinois, which had been deployed under heavy fire. In the afternoon the left wing of this regiment was ordered to relieve the Thirty-fourth Illinois, but was soon recalled, and with the balance of brigade took position farther to the right, relieving a part of the Twentieth Army Corps. 16th, marched to Rome via Snake Creek Gap. 17th, finding the enemy in front of Rome, we were formed in line on the right center, but were afterward moved by the right flank and took position on the right of the brigade, our front covered by skirmishers. We then advanced through a dense undergrowth of pine until night-fall, when we stopped and intrenched. In the morning, the enemy having disappeared, we encamped north of the city. On the 23d moved across the Oostenaula, through Rome, and then across the Etowah. 24th and 25th, marched to Dallas. 26th, remained in camp. 27th, the brigade took position on the left of the Army of the Tennessee. 28th, were deployed as skirmishers, connecting McPherson and Hooker. 29th, returned to our former position. 30th, position unchanged. 31st, relieved and marched to the left.
June 1, moved still farther to the left, and relieved a part of the Twenty-third Army Corps. 2d and 3d, position unchanged. 4th, relieved by a part of Gen. Whitaker's brigade. 5th, moved to the left and relieved a part of Gen. Williams' division, Twentieth Army Corps. 6th, went into position west of Big Shanty and remained until the 10th, when we advanced facing to the south. 11th, 12th, and 13th, advanced lines, skirmishing and intrenching. 14th, marched to the left and intrenched, occupying the right in front line, the left of brigade resting on the Atlanta railroad. 15th, remained in trenches. On this day Lieut. Platt, commanding Company G, was killed by a stray shot. In his death the regiment lost a most brave and efficient officer. 16th, 17th, and 18th, no change in position, but constant skirmishing. 19th, advanced our lines to the foot of Kenesaw Mountain, and remained in same position until the 25th, all the time under a severe fire from artillery and musketry posted on the side and crest of the mountain. Our casualties here were 5 severely wounded. 25th, relieved at midnight, marched to the right, and went into camp at daylight. 26th, remained in camp. 27th, we received orders at daylight to be prepared to storm the enemy's works in our front. The brigade was formed and in position by 9 o'clock, the Thirty-fourth Illinois being deployed as skirmishers, and the One hundred and thirteenth leading the main force. At the signal for the advance, the whole line sprang forward at the double-quick. The skirmish pits of the enemy were passed over, when we proceeded through thick woods up one hill and down across a small creek. Owing to the rough nature of the ground, the lines were not kept in as perfect order as desirable, but every man moved forward with ardor and the highest courage. When crossing the creek we found before us a hill of some size, at the summit of which were the main works of the enemy. Our skirmish support having fallen back, our regiment advanced up, exposed to the full fire of the enemy. It was not until we had advanced half way up the hill that the enemy poured into our ranks his heaviest fire. Our left was then in close proximity to a salient angle in the hostile works, toward which Col. McCook's brigade was charging with his entire line. The firing then became most terrific. The rebels opening up with two batteries upon either flank and delivering from the left a most galling musketry fire. The men, however, advanced without faltering, the One hundred and twenty-first taking position on our right. We found before us a heavy abatis work and the enemy's line heavily fortified and defended with all the appliances of the most skillful engineering. We charged rapidly forward, and our men falling by scores, until the left had nearly reached the works, some of the men falling immediately upon them. At this time Lieut.-Col. Warner was severely wounded, and the brigade upon our left being forced to retire, the order was given to fall back, which was done with perfect coolness, and position taken back of our supports in the rear, and intrenchments rapidly thrown up under fire. Where the whole regiment displayed such bravery it would be almost invidious to mention individual instances of daring. Lieut.-Col. Warner was in the thickest of the fight, urging men and officers forward, until after he was wounded. Lieut. Dungan, Company A, fell mortally wounded in advance of his company. Capt. John Bowersock, Company E; Lieut. Joseph Parker, Company G, and Lieut. Edward Crouse, Company F, each in command of their companies, were killed close up to the enemy's works, and their bodies were not recovered until the next day. It is sufficient evidence of the nature of the contest to say that in a space of not over twenty minutes the regiment lost 153 men. Of the 19 commissioned officers who went into the charge 10 were killed or wounded. Although the assault was not successful, still a most important advantage was gained, and we had the melancholy satisfaction of knowing that we failed only because we attempted impossibilities. 28th, remained in same position, within stone's throw of the rebel works, and heavy firing from the main lines, Maj. Sullivant in command. 29th and 30th, and 1st and 2d of July, no material change in position, but continued heavy skirmishing, with an occasional casualty. 3d, the enemy evacuated his works at night, we following through Marietta, came upon him and again intrenched. 4th, no change. 5th, the enemy fell back to his works at the Chattahoochee River, we following; in the morning found him strongly intrenched above and below the railroad bridge, in the form of a semi-circle, with each extremity of the arc resting on the river. We took position on the Marietta and Atlanta road and intrenched. 5th to 17th, no material change; constant skirmishing and artilleryfiring for much of the time. 17th, crossed the Chattahoochee River at Pace's Ferry; advanced skirmishers and crossed Nancy's Creek. 18th, advanced to Peach Tree Creek. 19th, our regiment, with the brigade, was ordered to advance across Peach Tree Creek to support the Third Brigade, which was heavily pressed. While the brigade was crossing we were ordered to form to the right, during which we suffered from a heavy flank fire, losing 2 killed and 2 wounded. At daylight the next morning we took position in a less exposed place across the creek. 20th, heavy firing, but no change. At night the enemy retired from our immediate front. 21st, our regiment was ordered on a reconnaissance toward the main Atlanta road. We advanced to within one-half mile of the river, discovering the enemy in force. 22d, advanced to within two and a half miles of Atlanta; formed lines and intrenched. 23d to 28th, remained in our works, except when on skirmish line. 28th, made reconnaissance to Turner's Ferry, and returning took position the right of Howard. 29th, advanced to White Hall road and intrenched. 30th, moved one mile to right and intrenched. 31st, reconnaissance to Utoy Creek and found the enemy in force.
August 1,2, and 3, position unchanged. Maj. Sullivant being unwell went to the division hospital, and the command of the regiment devolved upon myself. 5th, advanced toward the east, took position under heavy artillery fire, and intrenched. 6th, no change. 7th, advanced and captured line of skirmish pits; took some prisoners and several stand of arms; lost 1 killed and several wounded. 8th, 9th, 10th, and 11th, remained in trenches under constant fire, losing men every day. 12th, moved to the right, relieving a portion of the Twenty-third Army Corps. 13th to 19th, no change. 20thto 27th, constant skirmishing but no change of position. 27th, moved to the right across Utoy Creek. 28th, marched across Montgomery railroad, one mile to the southeast. 29th, lay in camp. 30th, marched at 6 a. m. and went into camp half way between Rough and Ready and Jonesborough. 31st, marched to one and a half miles distant from Macon railroad.
September 1, moved on Jonesborough road until opposite the enemy's intrenched position, and then filed to the left across an open field within plain view of his works. The march of the column was impeded by deep ditches, which it was necessary to bridge, during which time we were exposed to a raking fire from the enemy's batteries less than three-quarters of a mile distant. One shell exploding in our midst killed 2 and wounded 4 men. We moved forward and took position under cover of a skirt of woods within less than a half mile from the enemy, where we remained until 2 p. m. We then formed in line of battle, the Ninety-eighth Ohio deploying as skirmishers, and the One hundred and thirteenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry being in the front line, with the Seventy-eighth Illinois on the right, and the balance of the brigade in the rear as support. Orders were then received to storm the rebel works in our front. The line crossed a corn-field into a deep ravine, where our progress was impeded by deep ditches and a thick canebrake. These obstacles being overcome, the line was well dressed up and again ordered forward. The men pressed on rapidly, and as we neared the enemy I ordered them forward on the double quick. In an instant we were over the works, and our lines were thrown into considerable confusion by the rush of prisoners to the rear. There must have been from 100 to 150 prisoners passed through my command. We continued to move straight to the front until we captured 2 Parrott guns, limbers, ammuniton, and ammunition-wagon and 4 fine mules, which the enemy could not take away in his flight. We advanced until we were enfiladed by the enemy's fire and our own, the enemy still firing from the front. I halted the line and directed the men to lie down until I could get further orders. We then were ordered to fall back to the works just passed over, where we remained until nearly dark, when an order came to relieve the One hundred and twenty-first Ohio Volunteer Infantry, their ammunition being nearly exhausted. We moved to the right across a deep ravine up to the crest of a hill under a sharp fire from the enemy. A constant fire was kept up until about 9 p.m.. when the firing ceased. Here we captured the battle-flag of the Third Confederate Regiment, inscribed with the names of seven different battles. The next morning I fired a salute with canister from the guns captured by the Seventy-eighth Illinois, but received no response from the enemy. They had left during the night. None but the dead and a few wounded were found on the field. September 2, we moved into Jonesborough, and our fighting campaign was ended. Our casualties in this engagement were small in comparison with the exposure. Our loss was 3 killed and 7 wounded.
I submit the following table, which recapitulates the casualties during the entire campaign:
;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;Killed. Wounded. Missing. Total.
; Commissioned officers…;;;4;;;;;;; 7;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;..;;;;;; 11
; Enlisted men…………;;;;;;;;;31;;;;; 132;;;;;;;;;;;;;7;;;;;; 170
;;;; Total…………….;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;35;;;;; 139;;;;;;;;;;;;;7;;;;;; 181
To Capt. Otway Watson, who acted as second in command, I am much indebted for his cordial co-operation and active assistance in the management of the regiment.
In conclusion, I can only say that every officer and man of the regiment during the time it was under my command, and, so far as my own observation extends, during the entire campaign, exhibited under all circumstances a willingness to perform any duty and incur any danger for the common good, which should secure for them any reward these in authority can bestow upon the brave man, as he will unquestionably obtain the gratitude of posterity. To them all my most earnest gratitude is due and my warmest thanks extended.
All of which is most respectfully submitted.
Capt. JAMES S. WILSON,
Asst. Adjt. Gen., 2d Brig., 2d Div., 14th Army Corps.
Following the Atlanta Campaign, the regiment returned to Chattanooga, and then officials dispatched the 113th to Huntsville and then to Tuscumbia, two Alabama communities, before the regiment returned to Chattanooga. The 113th then rejoined Sherman’s main force and took an active part in Sherman’s March to the Sea in the autumn of 1864. Most of the 113th’s advance was uneventful, but four companies of the regiment did engage and drive from the field a Confederate force. Upon taking Savannah, Georgia, the 113th encamped at Sister’s Ferry on the Savannah River. In 1865, the 113th fought in the Carolinas Campaign. The Battle of Bentonville was the last engagement in which the regiment took part, engaging in fierce hand-to-hand combat with Confederate General Joseph Johnston’s soldiers. Following the Carolinas Campaign, an officer of the 113th issued the following report:
Report of Capt. Toland Jones, One hundred and thirteenth Ohio Infantry, of operations January 20-March 23.
HDQRS. 113TH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY,
Goldsborough, N. C., March 29, 1865.
CAPT.: Please find herewith a statement of the transactions of this regiment in the late campaign from Savannah, Ga., to the Goldsborough, N. C.:
On the 20th of January this regiment, in company with its division and brigade, moved from its encampment at Savannah, ten miles on the Springfield road, and encampment, where it remained until the 25th. Again the march was taken up for Sister's Ferry, where we arrived on the 18th and went into camp.
Here the regiment lay in camp until the 5th of February, waiting the fall of the Savannah River, and the construction of a bridge, corduroy, &c. On the evening of the 5th the regiment crossed into South Carolina, refitting, &c., until the 8th, when we moved forward in a northeasterly direction, passing through Barnwell Court-House on the 11th and Williston on the 12th. On the 13th crossed the South Fork of the Edisto River, and on the 14th crossed the North Fork of the Edisto at Horsey's Bridge. 15th, marched at the head of the division and had a skirmish with the enemy and took one prisoner. Passing through Lexington Court-House 16th, marched to within three miles of Columbia and then countermarched up the Saluda River to within about three miles of — Ferry. 17th, crossed the Saluda and marched to and encamped on Broad River. Got up the regiment at 3 a. m. and ferried it over Broad River at Freshly's Ferry (the Seventy-eighth Illinois in advance) and went into camp as advance guard. 19th, assisted in tearing up and destroying about four miles of the Greenville and South Carolina Railroad. 20th, marched to Little River. 21st, crossed Little River and encamped six miles northwest of Winnsborough. 22d, marched to Wateree Meeting-House. 23d, marched as rear guard and do not get into camp until 5 a. m. on the 24th. 24th, crossed the Catawba River on pontoon bridge at the same place where Lord Cornwallis crossed it in the Revolutionary War, and went into camp. Lay in camp until the 28th waiting the crossing of the balance of the balance of the corps, and then marched four miles and encamped.
March 1, marched as rear guard and 2d, marched across Snicker's Creek at McManus' Bridge. 3d, marched to Saint Clair's Bridge across Thompson's Creek. 4th, marched into North Carolina and came back into South Carolina and encamped on the Great Pedee River, two miles below Sneedsborough. In camp until the 8th waiting the crossing of the corps and was the last regiment over, crossing at 12.30 a. m., and going into camp until 8 a. m., still marching as rear guard and getting into camp at 11 a. m., making twenty-five miles. 9th, crossed Drowning Creek. 10th, marched to the relief of Kilpatrick, who had been attacked and repulsed by Hampton's cavalry, but rallied and repulsed them before our arrival. 11th, marched to Fayetteville, which was already in the possession of the First Division, and are encamped two miles west of town. 12th, marched through Fayetteville; crossed the Cape Fear River and encamped. 13th, moved camp a mile up the river. 14th, in same camp. 15th, marched on the plank road toward Raleigh. 16th, marched at 6 a. m. in advance of corps and division and came up to where the Twentieth Corps was engaged in a fight, and went in on their left, our brigade relieving one of theirs. We shoved them rapidly back, had a brisk skirmish, and drove them from one line of works into their main line, throwing up hasty works for the night close up to their main line. Next morning they were gone. Loss of the regiment, one man killed. 17th, crossed Black River and two other wide and marshy streams. 18th, marched 5.30 a. m. Our foragers met the enemy and were driven back. This regiment in company with its brigade and division was formed in order of battle and advanced, driving the enemy, eight slight skirmishing, some two miles, and went into camp for the night. 19th, marched at about 7 a. m., Second Brigade in advance of our division. The First Division met the enemy and engaged him early about five miles out. We came up and went into line on the right about 11 a. m. and threw up hasty fortifications of logs and anything that could be got hold of for turning bullets. Meanwhile the battle waged fiercely on our left. At last the First Division gave way and was shoved back until the defensive line on our left stood almost at right angles to ours, and a part of it was broken and the enemy (about one brigade) rushed through. At this time the enemy charged our front, and after a stern resistance were driven back. But before the firing had entirely ceased in our front we were attacked in the party who broken our lines to the left, and we had to hastily mount over our works to fight them, changing front to rear. But a few volleys from the line in our rear soon silenced them, and our part of the day's action was over. Loss, 5 wounded; 1 mortally. 20th, found that the enemy had fallen back during the night. Advanced our lines and the brigade had some pretty sharp skirmishing, but this regiment was not engaged. 21st, laid in same place, strengthening our lines, The Fifteenth and Seventeenth Corps came up on our right and in the morning the enemy was gone. 22d, finding the enemy gone from our front, we marched for Goldsborough and encamped at night on the Neuse River. 23d, marched as rear guard of our corps, crossing the Little River at Cox's Bridge, and making Goldsborough at sundown, passing Gen. Sherman's headquarters in order of review.*
Recapitulation of casualties: Killed, 2; wounded, 5; missing, 3.
I have the honor to be, captain, your obedient servant,
Capt., Commanding 113th Regt. Ohio Vol. Infantry.
Capt. JAMES S. WILSON,
Asst. Adjt. Gen., 2d Brig., 2d Div., 14th Army Corps.
Upon Johnston’s surrender in late April 1865, the 113th traveled to Washington, DC via Richmond, Virginia. At Washington, the regiment participated in the Grand Review. In early July 1865, officials ordered the 113th to Louisville, Kentucky, where it mustered out of service on July 6. The regiment then went to Camp Chase, where it was discharged.
During its term of service, the 113th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry had 119 men, including nine officers, killed on the battlefield. An additional 150 soldiers, including one officer, died from disease or accidents.
- John Hunt Morgan
- Battle of Chickamauga
- Battle of Missionary Ridge
- Camp Chase
- Camp Dennison
- Chattanooga Campaign
- Atlanta Campaign
- Battle of Peachtree Creek
- William Tecumseh Sherman
- Knoxville Campaign
- Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- Camp Zanesville
- James Longstreet
- Tullahoma Campaign
- Army of the Tennessee
- Carolinas Campaign
- Army of the Cumberland
- Joseph Eggleston Johnston