In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Infantry regiments formed in Ohio became known as regiments of Ohio Volunteer Infantry. They served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. On September 11, 1862, the 114th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry organized at Camp Circleville, at Circleville, Ohio. The men in the 114th were to serve for three years, and they principally came from Perry, Fairfield, Pickaway, Fayette, Hocking, and Vinton Counties, Ohio.
On September 19, 1862, the 114th moved to Marietta, Ohio, where the regiment remained until December 1, 1862, when it received orders to move to Memphis, Tennessee. On December 20, the 114th boarded transports and sailed down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, disembarking at Johnston's Landing on the Yazoo River. The regiment joined General William T. Sherman's command at Johnston's Landing and participated in the Battle of Chickasaw Bayou (December 26 to 29, 1862). On January 1, 1863, the Union soldiers, including members of the 114th, withdrew, boarding transport ships on January 2. The ships transported the soldiers to the vicinity of Arkansas Post, arriving on January 10. The next day, the Battle of Arkansas Post occurred, with the Union forces, including the 114th, capturing Fort Hindman from the Confederates. Following this engagement, the 114th sailed to Young's Point, Louisiana, arriving on January 23, where the regiment entered into winter quarters.
On March 8, 1863, the 114th moved to Milliken's Bend, Louisiana. On April 5, 1863, Union General Ulysses S. Grant began his campaign to capture Vicksburg, Mississippi. The 114th fought in every major engagement of this campaign, including the Battles of Thompson's Hill (May 1, 1863), Champion Hill (May 16, 1863), and Big Black River Bridge (May 17, 1863) and the Siege of Vicksburg. On May 25, officials ordered the regiment to Warrenton, Mississippi, where the 114th performed garrison duty. On July 14, the regiment moved to Vicksburg, which Union forces had captured on July 4. The 114th remained at Vicksburg until August 13, 1863, when it moved to Carrolton, Louisiana. On September 6, 1863, the regiment boarded trains and traveled to Brashear City, Louisiana. On October 3, the 114th began a march to Opelousas, Louisiana, traveling via Franklin, New Iberia, and Vermilionville. Remaining at Opelousas for just a few days, the regiment soon moved to New Orleans, Louisiana, arriving on November 22, 1863.
On November 28, 1863, the 114th boarded transports and sailed to Pass Cavallo, in Texas. The regiment went into camp at Decrow's Point on December 2, 1863. On January 14, 1864, the 114th moved to Matagorda, Island, remaining at this location until April 18, 1864, when officials ordered the regiment to Alexandria, Louisiana. The 114th arrived at Alexandria on April 26, providing reinforcements to General Nathaniel Banks's beleaguered army. The regiment participated in an engagement with Confederate forces at Graham's Plantation. On May 13, 1864, the Union forces retreated from Alexandria, arriving at Morganza, Louisiana on May 22, 1864. The 114th next participated in the Battles of Marksville and Yellow Bayou, with the Union forces emerging victorious at both engagements. The regiment stayed at Morganza until November 1864, conducting periodic reconnaissances and performing garrison duty.
On November 21, 1864, officials ordered the 114th to the mouth of the White River in Arkansas. The regiment arrived at this location on November 26, 1864, and officials consolidated the 120th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry with the 114th. This new organization kept the name of the 114th. On December 6, 1864, the regiment departed for Morganza, Louisiana, arriving on December 8. On December 13 and 14, the 114th participated in an expedition to the Atchafalaya River but did not encounter any enemy soldiers. After this march, the commanding officer of the 114th issued the following report:
HDQRS. U. S. EXPEDITIONARY FORCES, Morganza, La., December 15, 1864.
GEN.: I have the honor to very respectfully submit the following report, viz:
In obedience to instructions from headquarters U. S. forces, dated Morganza, La., December 12, 1864, I took command of the expedition composed of the Thirty-fourth Iowa Regt., One hundred and fourteenth Ohio Regt., one section of the Second Massachusetts Battery, and a detachment of the Second New York Veteran Cavalry, for the purpose of escorting and supporting Maj. Conover, Sixteenth Indiana Mounted Infantry, and his command in crossing the Atchafalaya River. The expedition moved from Morganza, La., December 13, 1864, at 8 a. m. and advanced to Morgan's Ferry bridge. At Cattlett's, a distance of nine miles, the column was halted for dinner and to await the arrival of Maj. Conover and his command, which arrived about 12 m., bringing with them four pontoon-boats for the purpose of crossing the river. Maj. Conover and Maj. Bell took a party and went forward from this point to the river to reconnoiter and select the point for crossing. I detached Lieut.-Col. Dungan, Thirty-fourth Iowa, with them for the purpose of selecting a suitable position for the artillery and the disposition of the troops to cover the crossing after Maj. Conover had selected the crossing. It was arranged that the expedition would move forward one mile of the river and halt until the place of crossing was selected and reported to me. Maj. Conover returned about sunset and reported that a crossing had been selected and that there were no rebel pickets near the point selected. About 7 p. m. I moved the expedition up to the river, stationed the artillery and disposed the forces, launched the boats and commenced crossing the command over at 8 p. m. The command to be crossed over consisted of 212 men, their horses, saddles, carbines, and equipments. The means of crossing were the four boats before mentioned, each of which took four men, their saddles, bridles, equipments, &c., swimming their four horses alongside the boat. The entire command was crossed over and in readiness to move, and moved off at 12 midnight. Maj. Conover and I agreed upon a signal by which I could recognize him or any of his command in case they were compelled to return to the river. I then had the boats all taken out of the river and put out of view from the opposite side of the river to prevent the enemy from discovering by what means the force had crossed over. I then gave orders to the officers in charge of the artillery to report to me anything that might occur on the opposite side of the river. At 3 a. m. Maj. Conover and his command returned and reported that he had moved with his command about six miles down the river, encountered an impassable bayou, had a man drowned in attempting to cross over it, and that he desired me to recross his command. At 6 a. m. the boats were again launched and the crossing commenced. By 11 a. m. the command was over, the boats reloaded on the wagons, and the entire expedition in readiness to move. In crossing and recrossing Maj. Conover's command no accident or misfortune of any kind occurred. We met no force on our way out, neither did we encounter any at the crossing. Maj. Conover captured one prisoner whom I forwarded to the provost-marshal U. S. forces. The officers in command of the regiments, detachments, and artillery rendered efficient aid and services. The officers and troops of the entire expedition rendered aid promptly when called upon, and conducted themselves in an officer-like and soldierly manner. The expedition arrived at Morganza December 14, 6 p. m.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOHN H. KELLY,
Col. 114th Ohio Vol. Infty., Cmdg. Expedition.
Brig. Gen. D. ULLMANN,
Cmdg. U. S. Forces.
On January 8, 1865, the regiment moved to Kenna, Louisiana, staying at this location until January 24, when the organization embarked for Barrancas, Florida. In May 1865, the 114th left Barrancas for Houston, Texas, where the regiment mustered out of service on July 31, 1865.
During the 114th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry's term of service, thirty-nine men, including three officers, died on the battlefield. An additional 272 men, including two officers, succumbed to disease or accidents.