In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Artillery batteries formed in Ohio became known as batteries of Ohio Volunteer Artillery. They served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. On September 10, 1861, the 14th Ohio Independent Battery of Ohio Volunteer Artillery mustered into service at Camp Wade, at Cleveland, Ohio. Officials recruited the battery in Ashtabula, Lake, Trumbull, and Geauga Counties, Ohio. The battery was also known as Burrows’ Battery, named after one of the organization’s captains, Jerome B. Burrows. The men in the battery were to serve three years.
On January 2, 1862, the 14th arrived at Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati, Ohio. The battery departed Camp Dennison on February 5, 1862 for Kansas, but upon the organization reaching St. Louis, Missouri, General Henry Halleck ordered the unit to join his command.On February 13, 1862, the 14th began a movement to Fort Henry in Tennessee. The battery traveled to Fort Henry via Cairo, Illinois and Paducah, Kentucky, arriving on March 6, 1862. The next day, the organization moved up the Tennessee River to Pittsburg Landing, reaching this location one week later. On April 6 and 7, 1862, the Battle of Shiloh occurred. On the engagement’s first day, Confederate forces captured all of the battery’s artillery pieces, with the 14th having four men killed and twenty-six wounded. The organization did not engage the Confederates the second day of the battle, but Union forces did recover the battery’s cannons.
Following the Battle of Shiloh, the 14th participated in the Union’s Siege of Corinth, Mississippi. After the North’s capture of this important railroad junction in early June 1862, the battery moved, on June 4, 1862, to Jackson, Tennessee, where the unit performed garrison duty until June 2, 1863. On that date, the organization advanced to Corinth, remaining at this location until November 2, 1863. The battery next traveled to Lynnville, Tennessee. At this location, on January 1, 1864, eighty-four members of the 14th reenlisted and received a thirty-day furlough to their homes in Ohio. These soldiers arrived at Cleveland, Ohio on January 25, 1864 and then retired to their homes.
On March 2, 1864, the 14th departed Cleveland, arriving at Lynnville on March 7, 1864. Six days later, the battery departed Lynnville for Athens, Alabama, arriving on March 15, 1864. On April 19, 1864, officials dispatched a small portion of the organization to Culleoka, Tennessee. The remainder of the battery moved to Decatur, Alabama, two days later, where the Culleoka detachment rejoined the organization on April 28, 1864. The 14th left Decatur, except for a small detachment, on May 1, 1864, reaching Rossville, Alabama one week later.
On May 13, 1864, the 14th left Rossville and embarked upon William T. Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign. The battery participated in the Battles of Resaca, Dallas, Kennesaw Mountains, and Chattahoochie River and also fought in the Siege of Atlanta, Georgia. This city fell to Sherman’s army in early September 1864. The battery had three men killed and eighteen soldiers wounded in this campaign. During the Atlanta Campaign, the 14th commanding officer issued the following report:
HDQRS. FOURTEENTH OHIO BATTERY, Near Atlanta, Ga., July 24, 1864.
I have the honor to submit the following report of the part performed by this battery in the engagement of the 22d:
In the morning at 9 o'clock we lay in part to the right of the railroad near Gen. Dodge's headquarters. We very soon after received orders to report to Gen. Fuller at the front and extreme left of our lines, reaching that vicinity near 11 o'clock, and hearing that the enemy was moving on our flank, we, in compliance with the orders of Gen. Sweeny, whose division we had followed, went into position, commanding the ravine from which the enemy was expected to issue. The lines were scarcely formed when the rebel column appeared where we expected to see them, and where we could give them the best possible reception. We opened at once with shell, firing as rapidly as possible, yet on they came. Canister was then used with good effect. The enemy broke, rallied, broke again, and again rallied, but after long and persistent fighting they were compelled to fall back. During the engagement we lost 2 men killed and 6 wounded. 2 of the 6 were wounded but slightly and continued to do duty. The ammunition expended amounted to 651 rounds. Six horses were wounded, 4 of which are rendered unserviceable. Since the engagement 1 officer and 40 men from the Second U. S. Battery have been temporarily assigned to this battery, which gives us for duty 4 officers and 160 men.
I have the honor to be, captain, your obedient servant,
S. M. LAIRD,
Lieut., Fourteenth Ohio Battery, Cmdg.
Capt. GEORGE ROBINSON,
Chief of Artillery
The 14th spent September 1864 in the vicinity of Atlanta, recuperating from the lengthy campaign. In October 1864, while on a reconnaissance, the battery shelled Confederate infantry at Fairburn, Georgia. The organization next participated in the Union’s pursuit of Confederate General John Bell Hood’s army, which was launching an invasion of northern Georgia, northern Alabama, and central Tennessee in the autumn of 1864. On October 31, the battery arrived at Nashville, Tennessee, where officials assigned the 14th to the Horse Artillery. The unit fought in the Battle of Nashville (December 15 and 16, 1864). This Union victory ended Hood’s invasion. The battery next joined the North’s pursuit of the retreating Confederates. During this movement, the 14th engaged the Confederate rearguard at Richland Creek and Sugar Creek, helping Union forces drive the Southerners from the battlefields.
In early January 1865, the Northern pursuit of Hood’s army ended, and the 14th encamped near Eastport, Mississippi on January 15, 1865. In early February 1865, officials ordered the battery to New Orleans, Louisiana. Traveling via Cairo, Illinois, Memphis, Tennessee, and Vicksburg, Mississippi, the organization reached New Orleans in early March 1865. The unit next sailed to Mobile, Alabama, arriving in early April 1865. While positioned in the Union’s battle lines, the 14th did not see combat in the North’s attempts to capture this city. During the remainder of April and early May 1865, the battery traveled from Mobile to Montgomery Alabama, moving through Blakely, Greenville, and Eufaula, reaching Montgomery on May 8, 1865. Three days later, the organization departed Montgomery for Columbus, Mississippi, remaining at this location until July 27, 1865, when officials ordered the unit to Cairo, Illinois to be mustered out of service. Upon the battery arriving at Cairo, authorities sent the 14th to Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati, Ohio, where the unit mustered out of service on August 9, 1865.
During the 14th Battery’s term of service, eleven men died on the battlefield, while thirty-eight soldiers, including one officer, perished from disease or accidents.