In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Infantry regiments formed in Ohio became known as regiments of Ohio Volunteer Infantry. They served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. In 1864, the governors of several Northern states convinced federal authorities to call up state militia forces for regular military duty. The governors believed that these militiamen would free regular soldiers currently serving in forts or guarding other important sites in Northern states for duty with the Union's invading armies in the Confederacy. Hopefully this surge of men, known as Hundred Days' Men, would allow the North to defeat the South in one hundred days or less while keeping Northern states safe from Confederate attack and anti-war unrest.
On May 9, 1864, the 154th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry mustered into service at Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati, Ohio. The men in the regiment were to serve one hundred days. The regiment primarily consisted of the 60th Regiment Ohio National Guard and the 23rd Battalion Ohio National Guard.
On May 12, 1864, authorities dispatched the 154th to New Creek, West Virginia via Columbus, Ohio. The regiment arrived at Martinsburg on May 14. On May 22, officials dispatched Company F to Piedmont, West Virginia, where this unit remained for the rest of its term of service. The remaining companies performed guard duty at Martinsburg until May 29, when officials sent one company to Youghiogheny Bridge and the other eight companies to Greenland Gap. At these locations, all companies performed guard duty and acted as scouts. On June 4, a detachment from the 154th engaged a Confederate force near Moorefield, West Virginia. The Ohioans emerged from this encounter victorious. On June 12, three hundred members of the 154th participated in a ten-day scout, skirmishing frequently with Confederate forces and taking three prisoners. Another scout began on June 23, consisting of one hundred men from the 154th and a detachment of cavalry. This group found no Confederate soldiers. All companies except for Company F returned to New Creek on July 4, anticipating a Confederate attack that did not materialize. On July 7, the nine companies returned to Greenland Gap, remaining here until July 25, 1864, when officials abandoned the community. The 154th returned to New Creek, where it victoriously engaged Bradley Johnson’s Confederate forces on August 4. On August 10, 1864, a portion of the regiment escorted Confederate prisoners to Camp Chase at Columbus, Ohio. These men remained at Camp Chase until discharged. The remainder of the regiment departed for Camp Dennison on August 22, 1864, arriving on August 27. The 154th mustered out of service at Camp Dennison on September 1, 1864.
During the 154th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry’s term of service, three men perished from disease or accidents, while one man died from wounds received on the battlefield.