In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Infantry regiments formed in Ohio became known as regiments of Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Formed on October 9, 1864, the 180th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry organized at Camp Chase at Columbus, Ohio. The men in the regiment were to serve a one-year term of enlistment.
On October 15, 1864, authorities dispatched the 180th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry to Nashville, Tennessee. Officials, upon the regiment arriving in Nashville, quickly dispatched the 180th to Decherd, Tennessee, where the men guarded the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad for the next three months. While at Decherd, the regiment became part of the Military Division of the Mississippi and the Department of the Ohio. On January 6, 1865, the 180th Regiment moved to Nashville. Within three days, officials ordered the regiment to escort a wagon train on its way to Eastport, Mississippi. The 180th traveled only as far as Columbia, Tennessee, where it received orders to return to Nashville.
Upon returning to Nashville, authorities transferred the 180th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry to North Carolina to become part of the Department of North Carolina. The regiment traveled from Nashville to Washington, DC via Louisville, Kentucky and Cincinnati, Ohio. The 180th arrived in Washington on January 31, 1865, where it remained at Camp Stoneman for the next three weeks. Officials then sent the regiment to North Carolina to assist Union forces in capturing Fort Fisher. Shortly before the 180th arrived in North Carolina, Fort Fisher surrendered to Northern soldiers, causing the 180th then to be sent to New Bern, North Carolina, where it joined a force under the command of Ohioan Jacob D. Cox. Cox's command was to open a railway line to General William T. Sherman's army, which was currently pursuing Confederate General Joseph Johnston's command. At Kingston, North Carolina, Cox's men battled against Confederate forces under General Braxton Bragg on March 8, 9, and 10, 1865. The Northerners drove the Confederates from Kingston, with the 180th Regiment having eleven men killed, including Lieutenant-Colonel Hiram McKay, and an additional thirty men wounded.
Colonel Willard Warner filed the following report after the Battle of Kingston:
HDQRS. 180TH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY,
Wise's Forks, N. C., March 12, 1865.
LIEUT.: I have the honor to report the part taken by my
regiment in the action of the 8th, 9th, and 10th instant at this place, as
On the afternoon of the 8th I was first put into position about 100 yards
in rear of the center of the brigade, with Company A, Capt. Holland,
and Company D, Capt. Mills, in the front as skirmishers, both in
charge of Maj. Wood, of my regiment. I intrenched immediately, in
pursuance of orders, and remained in this position until midnight of the
9th instant, having, after the night of the 8th, one company on the
skirmish line, when I was ordered by Gen. Ruger to post my
regiment in front of the Dover road and about half a mile to the south
of the Trent road and beyond the left of Gen. Carter's division, and
to establish a strong intrenched picket-line from Gen. Carter's left,
parallel with and about half a mile in front and to the west of the Dover
road, with the left refused and resting on the road in rear of the
ammunition train and hospital of the First Division, with notice that an
attack on our left or attempt to flank in that direction was anticipated,
and that I was expected to resist stubbornly any approach of the enemy
to the Dover road, in order that time might be had to send other troops
to meet the attack, should it be made. While passing to my position I
was directed by a staff officer of Gen. Cox to bivouac for the night
near the hospital and await further orders.
On the morning of the 10th instant Gen. Carter's refused picketline
on his left was thrown forward parallel with the Dover road, and I was
ordered by Gen. Ruger to continue that line in the manner before
stated. I at once, in person, commenced establishing an intrenched
picket-line of groups of four men from forty to fifty yards apart, and
had nearly finished when the enemy's attack commenced on the Trent
road, and I was ordered to follow, with my regiment, the left of the
Second Brigade, First Division, Twenty-third Corps, and to receive
orders from Col. McQuiston, commanding. A few minutes after
joining the left of the Second Brigade I was ordered by Gen. Ruger
to double-quick to the support of the First Brigade, and had nearly
reached it when I was ordered back by Gen. Cox and held in reserve
at the forks of the roads, where I remained until near night, when I was
ordered by Gen. Ruger to report to Col. Thomas, commanding
Third Brigade, and was by him put in position on the left of his line
south of the Trent road and west of and parallel with the Dover road,
and remained until the afternoon of the 11th instant, when I was ordered
to report with my regiment to my own brigade commander. During the
day of the 10th I had two companies on the skirmish line, and during
the night of the 10th and 11th four companies. Company A, Capt.
Holland, captured on the 10th, on the skirmish line, 31 prisoners, and
Company C, Lieut. Lemert, 2.
My casualties during the three days are as follows: 3 enlisted men
killed, 2 officers and 11 enlisted men wounded.
Lieut. Col. Hiram McKay was dangerously wounded on the
9th on the skirmish line while in charge as brigade officer of the day.
Brave, cool, and skillful as an officer of three years' experience in all grades
from private to his present rank, and of a noble, manly character, I
deeply mourn his suffering and the loss of his services.
Lieut. T. C. Hirst, Company D, was severely wounded on the 8th
while bravely and skillfully directing the men of his company on the
skirmish line under a sharp fire.
I bear glad testimony to the courage and faithfulness of all my officers
and men, many of whom had never before been under fire. Every
company but one, Company K, was at some time during the fight on the
I am, most respectfully, your obedient servant,
Col. 180th Ohio, Cmdg. Regt.
Lieut. JOHN W. WALKER,
Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., First Brig., First Div., 23d Corps.
Following the Battle of Kingston, the 180th marched towards Goldsboro, North Carolina, the location of Sherman's army, repairing the railroad as the regiment advanced. The regiment arrived at Goldsboro on March 21, 1865, and it remained there until April 9, 1865, when it advanced with the rest of Sherman's army to Raleigh, North Carolina. The 180th performed garrison duty in Raleigh, until Johnston's Confederates surrendered in late April 1865. The regiment then moved to Charlotte, North Carolina, via Greensboro, North Carolina. The 180th remained at Charlotte, performing garrison duty, until officials mustered the regiment out of service on July 12, 1865. The 180th then traveled to Columbus, Ohio, where authorities discharged the regiment on July 25, 1865.
The 180th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry lost six men killed, including one officer, on the battlefield. Many more men were wounded, and an additional eighty-five soldiers, including one officer, succumbed to disease or accidents.