In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Artillery batteries formed in Ohio became known as batteries of Ohio Volunteer Artillery. They served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. On November 6, 1862, Secretary of War Edwin Stanton authorized Ohio Governor David Tod to recruit the 22nd Ohio Independent Battery of Ohio Volunteer Artillery. This organization was also known as Neil's Battery, named after Henry M. Neil, one of the battery's captains. By April 1, 1863, officials had enlisted enough men to man two cannons. Authorities ordered the two gun crews to Wheeling, West Virginia and to Holmes County, Ohio to assist Union officials in enforcing the draft. This portion of the battery moved to Camp Chase, at Columbus, Ohio, on June 19, 1863. In the meantime, the rest of the 22nd continued to organize at Camp Chase.
Before completing organization, the 22nd Battery traveled to Parkersburg, West Virginia to assist in repulsing Confederate guerrillas in late June 1863. The battery then moved to Wheeling, followed by Hancock, Maryland, before returning to Parkersburg. From Parkersburg, officials ordered detachments of the 22nd into southeastern Ohio to repulse General John Hunt Morgan's cavalrymen, who were conducting a raid through Ohio. One of the detachments engaged Morgan's Raiders at Georgetown, Ohio and joined the Union pursuit of the Confederates to Salineville, Ohio. The battery reunited at Camp Chase, where it completed organization on July 14, 1863. The men in the organization were to serve three years.
On August 12, 1863, the 22nd Battery departed Camp Chase for Camp Nelson, Kentucky, where it joined the 9th Corps, the Army of the Ohio. The 9th Corps, including the 22nd, departed Camp Nelson for Cumberland Gap, arriving at the outskirts of this new location on September 7, 1863. The battery participated in the Battle of Cumberland Gap (September 7 to 9, 1863).
On January 3, 1864, one gun crew accompanied 350 cavalrymen on a reconnaissance of Confederate General James Longstreet's army in western North Carolina. Approximately 4,500 Southerners engaged the Northern soldiers, who surrendered after resisting the Confederates for twelve hours. By early February 1864, the 22nd Battery returned to Kentucky, where it primarily worked to subdue Confederate guerrillas.
On June 27, 1864, officials ordered the 22nd to Knoxville, Tennessee, where the battery performed garrison duty until July 5, 1865. On July 5, the organization left Knoxville for Camp Chase, where the 22nd's members mustered out of service on July 13, 1865.
During the 22nd Battery's term of service, the organization had three men, including one officer, killed on the battlefield and an additional seventeen soldiers, including one officer, die from disease or accidents.