In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Artillery batteries formed in Ohio became known as batteries of Ohio Volunteer Artillery. They served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. On August 27, 1862, the 2nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, which was currently serving with the Army of the Frontier, contributed thirteen members from each of its companies to establish an artillery battery. Organized at Fort Scott in Kansas and originally known as the 3rd Battery Kansas Artillery, this battery would become the 25th Ohio Independent Battery of Ohio Volunteer Artillery on February 17, 1863. The organization was also known as Hadley's Battery, named after Julius L. Hadley, a captain in the unit.
On September 17, 1862, the battery moved towards Sarcoxie, Missouri, arriving on September 25, 1862. On September 29, 1862, one-half of the organization accompanied a Union force to Newtonia, Missouri, where a battle erupted the next day. Greatly outnumbered, the Northerners retreated. Covering the retreat, the 3rd Kansas barely escaped, although the battery only had two men wounded, while the Southerners captured much of the Northern infantry and cavalry. The battery returned to Sarcoxie and, on October 4, 1862, participated in a second assault on Newtonia, with the Union soldiers emerging victorious. The 3rd joined the Northern pursuit of the fleeing Confederates and, on October 29, attacked the Confederates at Maysville, Arkansas, completely dispersing the Southern force.
Continuing to serve with the Army of the Frontier in Arkansas, the 3rd Kansas fought in the Battles of Kane Hill (November 29, 1862), Prairie Grove (December 7, 1862), and Van Buren (December 29, 1862). After this last engagement, the battery returned to Missouri, encamping at Crane Creek. In response to an order from the United States War Department, the 3rd Kansas became the 25th Ohio Independent Battery of Ohio Volunteer Artillery on February 17, 1863, at Crane Creek. On February 27, 1863, the 25th moved to Camp Solomon near Mount Vernon, Missouri. During March and April 1863, the battery participated in an expedition along the Boston Mountains in Arkansas, returning via Forsyth, Springfield, Hartville, and Houston to Missouri and encamping at Salem on May 1, 1863. On May 22, 1863, officials ordered the 25th to Rolla, Missouri, where, on June 23, 1863, the Inspector-General of the Department of Missouri reviewed the battery, concluding that the organization was "one of the best batteries of volunteer light artillery I have ever seen in service."
On June 26, 1863, the battery moved to Pilot Knob, Missouri and joined the 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division under the command of General Davidson. On July 1, these Northerners entered Arkansas in pursuit of Confederate forces under the command of General Sterling Price and General John Marmaduke. The Union soldiers reached Clarendon, Arkansas on August 8, 1863. At Clarendon, the 25th Battery had its first man die; Chagrin Falls, Ohio resident Private Thomas Scott perished from chronic diarrhea. Officials also detached the battery from the Cavalry Division, establishing a new artillery brigade.
On August 18, 1863, the 25th and two Union infantry divisions began an expedition against Confederate forces at Little Rock, Arkansas. One week into the movement, the Union soldiers reached Brownsville, Arkansas, where the Battle of Brownsville occurred. The Northerners drove the Confederates from the battlefield relatively easily. The Union force, after numerous skirmishes, captured Little Rock on September 10, 1863. The 25th remained at Little Rock during September and October 1863. In November 1863, officials divided the battery, sending portions to the Arkansas communities of Pine Bluff, Benton, and Little Rock, with each detachment engaging in periodic expeditions and skirmishes.
On January 1, 1864, authorities ordered the 25th's consolidation at Little Rock. Many of the battery's members reenlisted on January 20, 1864, and the soldiers received a thirty-day furlough to their homes in Ohio, arriving at Columbus on January 29, 1864. On March 17, 1864, the 25th rendezvoused at Cleveland and departed for Little Rock, traveling via Columbus, Cincinnati, Ohio, and Cairo, Illinois.
Upon arriving at Little Rock, officials ordered the 25th to garrison Fort Steele and placed the battery in the Cavalry Division, 7th Army Corps. On March 24, 1865, the organization joined the 1st Division, 7th Army Corps. The 25th remained at Little Rock, performing garrison duty and conducting periodic expeditions until November 1865, when officials ordered the battery to Ohio. On December 12, 1865, the battery mustered out of service at Camp Chase, at Columbus.
During the 25th Battery's term of service, the organization had no men killed on the battlefield and twenty-three soldiers die from disease or accidents.