In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Artillery batteries formed in Ohio became known as batteries of Ohio Volunteer Artillery. They served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. In February 1862, the 3rd Ohio Independent Battery of Ohio Volunteer Artillery organized at Canton, Ohio. The battery was also known as Williams’ Battery, named after the organization’s commanding officer, William S. Williams. The men in the battery were to serve three years.
Officials dispatched the 3rd in mid March to Tennessee, where the battery fought in the second day of the Battle of Shiloh (April 6 and 7, 1862). Following this Union victory, the organization participated in the Siege of Corinth, Mississippi, with the unit having one man, Nicholas Mouse, killed and several more soldiers wounded. Following the North’s capture of Corinth, the 3rd fought in the Battle of Iuka, Mississippi (September 19, 1862). Following this engagement, the battery advanced with General Ulysses S. Grant along the Tallahatchie River against Jackson, Mississippi, before moving to Memphis, Tennessee.
In the spring and early summer of 1863, the 3rd Battery participated in Grant’s Vicksburg Campaign. The battery fought in the Battles of Raymond (May 12, 1863), Jackson (May 14, 1863), and Champion Hill (May 16, 1863) and also participated in the Siege of Vicksburg, which resulted in the Union’s capture of this stronghold on July 4, 1863. The organization remained at Vicksburg until departing on William T. Sherman’s advance on Meridian, Mississippi in early 1864. On this expedition, the battery engaged in a cannon duel with Confederate artillery at Clinton, Mississippi, with the unit having two soldiers killed and several more men wounded. At the Battle of Meridian (February 14 to 20, 1864), the 3rd had two men captured. Following this engagement, the battery returned to Vicksburg, where the organization remained until the spring of 1864.
In April 1864, officials ordered the 3rd Battery to join William T. Sherman’s army, which was currently operating in northern Georgia. The battery traveled via Cairo, Illinois, Huntsville, Alabama, and Rome, Georgia to Big Shanty, Georgia, where the organization joined Sherman’s command. Assigned to the 17th Army Corps, the 3rd embarked upon Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, fighting in the Battles of Kennesaw Mountain, Nicojack Creek, Leggett’s Bald Knob, Jonesborough, and Lovejoy’s Station. Upon the Union’s capture of Atlanta, Georgia in early September 1864, the battery rested at this location for several weeks before joining the pursuit of Confederate General John Bell Hood’s army, which was invading northern Georgia, northern Alabama, and central Tennessee. The 3rd fought in the Battle of Nashville (December 15 and 16, 1864). The Northern victory in this battle essentially ended Hood’s invasion. The organization remained at Nashville for the winter of 1864-1865. In the spring of 1865, the battery traveled to Fort Donelson, where the unit performed garrison duty.
In July 1865, officials ordered the 3rd Ohio to Camp Taylor, at Cleveland, Ohio, where the battery mustered out of service on August 1, 1865.