In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Artillery units in Ohio served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. On October 8, 1861, Battery B of the 1st Regiment Ohio Light Artillery mustered into service at Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati, Ohio. This regiment had previously served for three months as a state organization. Battery B's members were now to serve three years.
Upon Battery B mustering into service, officials dispatched the organization to Camp Dick Robinson, where it joined General George H. Thomas's command. The battery soon moved to Camp Wild Cat, Kentucky, where it engaged Confederate forces. Battery B next marched to Danville, Kentucky, after brief stops at London, Kentucky and Lebanon, Kentucky. On November 15, 1861, the battery joined the 17th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry at Fishing Creek and engaged in numerous skirmishes with Confederate soldiers in the vicinity of Somerset, Kentucky.
On January 17, 1862, Battery B departed Fishing Creek for Mill Springs, Kentucky, where the organization fought in the Battle of Mill Springs (January 19, 1862). Following this engagement, the battery moved to Somerset, remaining at this location until February 19, 1862. Battery B then traveled to Louisville, Kentucky, where the organization boarded transports for Nashville, Tennessee, arriving at this location on March 4, 1862. The battery encamped at Nashville until March 29, 1862, when it embarked upon several expeditions in central Tennessee until July 10, 1862. During this time, Battery B primarily pursued Southern cavalry forces operating in the region. On July 18, 1862, the battery reported for duty at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, where the organization continued on various expeditions in central and eastern Tennessee during the months of July and August.
On September 3, 1862, Battery B departed McMinnville, Tennessee, joining the Army of the Ohio's pursuit of Braxton Bragg's Confederate army, which was advancing into Kentucky during the autumn of 1862. The battery reached Louisville on September 26, 1862, and in early October, the Union army departed Louisville in search of Bragg's force. On October 8, 1862, the two armies engaged at the Battle of Perryville, Kentucky, but Battery B, which manned a portion of the Union right, did not engage the enemy in this conflict. Following the battle, the battery; patrolled southern Kentucky and finally moved to Nashville, arriving on November 26, 1862. One month later, Battery B and much of the Union's Army of the Cumberland advanced towards Murfreesboro, Tennessee. On December 26, 1862, while on the march, the battery and other Union soldiers engaged Confederate forces in a skirmish at Lavergne, Tennessee. At the Battle of Stones River (December 31, 1862 to January 2, 1863) Battery B, which was positioned on the Union right. During the Northern right's collapse, the battery's members succeeded in extracting all of their cannons but did have five men killed and twelve more soldiers wounded or captured.
On January 7, 1863, Battery B moved to Cripple Creek, eight miles from Murfreesboro. The battery remained at this location until June 24, 1863, when the organization embarked upon the Tullahoma Campaign. The organization next participated in the Chattanooga Campaign, engaging Confederate forces at the Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia (September 19 and 20, 1863). Battery B took up a position on the Union left during the battle. On the engagement's second day, Confederate forces overwhelmed the battery, capturing two of the Northerners' artillery pieces. After the Union defeat at Chickamauga, Battery B retreated with the rest of the Army of the Cumberland to Chattanooga, Tennessee, shelling Confederate positions at the Battles of Lookout Mountain (November 24, 1863) and Missionary Ridge (November 25, 1863).
Following the Union victory at Missionary Ridge, officials dispatched Battery B to Nashville, where the organization arrived on December 6, 1863. On January 4, 1864, many members of Battery B reenlisted and received a thirty-day furlough to their homes in Ohio. The men departed Nashville on February 4, 1863, reaching Cleveland, Ohio on February 6, 1863.
Upon completion of the furlough, Battery B returned to Nashville and, on March 16, 1864, traveled to Bridgeport, Alabama. The battery remained at Bridgeport until July 1866, when officials ordered the unit to Columbus, Ohio, where it mustered out of service.