In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Artillery units in Ohio served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. In November and early December 1861, officials recruited Battery G of the 1st Regiment Ohio Light Artillery in the Ohio cities of Painesville and Cleveland. In mid December, the battery traveled to Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati, Ohio, where the organization mustered into service on December 17, 1861. The 1st Regiment had previously served for three months as a state organization. Battery G's members were now to serve three years.
Battery G remained at Camp Dennison until February 10, 1862, when the unit marched to Cincinnati and boarded steamers for Louisville, Kentucky, arriving at this location the following day. The battery then entered camp at Camp Jesse D. Bright at Jeffersonville, Indiana. On February 27, 1862, the unit boarded the steamer Rocket and sailed to Nashville, Tennessee, arriving on March 4, 1862. On March 11, 1862, officials assigned Battery G to General George Crittenden’s 5th Division. In late March 1862, Battery G departed Nashville for Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, arriving on the morning of April 7, 1862, during the second day of the Battle of Shiloh (April 6 and 7, 1862). The organization engaged Confederate forces throughout the engagement’s second day. Following this Union victory, the battery participated in the Siege of Corinth, Mississippi. Following the North’s's capture of Corinth, Battery G traveled, via Tuscumbia, Alabama, to Athens, Alabama, arriving at this location on June 30, 1862. Officials assigned a portion of the battery to garrison Athens and sent the remainder of the unit to Morresville, Alabama to garrison this city.
On August 19, 1862, authorities ordered Battery G to Nashville, where the organization arrived the next day. The battery remained at Nashville, garrisoning various locations, until late December 1862, when the unit advanced with the rest of the Army of the Cumberland to Murfreesboro, Tennessee. At Murfreesboro, the Battle of Stones River occurred from December 31, 1862 to January 2, 1863, with Battery G participating in all three days of the engagement.
Battery G remained at Murfreesboro until June 24, 1864, when the organization embarked upon the Tullahoma Campaign. On June 27, the unit reached Manchester and engaged Braxton Bragg’s Confederate army at Shelbyville and Tullahoma. In early July 1864, the battery entered camp at Decherd, Tennessee. On August 16, 1864, Battery G moved to Cave Spring, Alabama and then traveled to Stevenson, Alabama, arriving on September 6, 1864. The battery participated in the Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia (September 19 and 20, 1864), retreating to Chattanooga, Tennessee after this Union defeat. At Chattanooga, Confederate forces laid siege to the city. Battery G was under constant fire. The organization participated in the Battle of Missionary Ridge (November 25, 1864). This Union victory finally ended the siege.
On December 2, 1863, officials ordered Battery G to Nashville, where many of the organization’s members reenlisted on January 4, 1864. These men received a thirty-day furlough to their homes in Ohio. After the furlough, Battery G returned to Nashville. In March 1864, authorities sent the battery to Fort Donelson, returning to Nashville within ten days. In August 1864, the organization engaged in several skirmishes with Confederate General Joseph Wheeler’s and General Nathan Bedford Forrest’s cavalry along the Tennessee River. Officials ordered the battery to Chattanooga, Tennessee in October 1864, before dispatching the unit to Pulaski, Tennessee, where the organization spent two weeks constructing fortifications.
On November 23, 1864, Battery G departed Pulaski, Tennessee and joined the Union’s pursuit of Confederate General John Bell Hood's army, which was advancing into northern Georgia, northern Alabama, and Central Tennessee during the autumn and early winter months of 1864. The battery participated in the Northern defeat at the Battle of Franklin (November 30, 1864), having twenty-three men killed or wounded. Battery G retreated to Nashville, where the organization garrisoned a hill near Fort Casino. The battery skirmished with Confederate forces every day between December 1 and December 14, 1864. On December 15 and 16, 1864, the organization fought in the Battle of Nashville. This Union victory ended Hood's invasion. The battery participated in the Northern pursuit of Hood’s retreating Confederates, with the unit skirmishing with the Confederates at Rutherford Creek, Tennessee. The organization then entered winter encampment at Huntsville, Alabama.
In March 1865, officials sent Battery G and the 4th Corps on an expedition into eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, returning to Nashville in April 1865. In May 1865, both organizations traveled to New Orleans, Louisiana. Battery G remained at New Orleans performing garrison duty until mid August 1865, when officials ordered the unit to Camp Chase at Columbus, Ohio. Battery G mustered out of service at Camp Chase on September 1, 1865.