In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Artillery units in Ohio served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. In October, November, and December 1861, Battery H of the 1st Regiment Ohio Light Artillery organized at Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati, Ohio. This regiment had previously served for three months as a state organization. Battery H's members were now to serve three years.
On January 20, 1862, Battery H departed Camp Dennison via ships to Parkersburg, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia). The battery then traveled via the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to Patterson's Creek, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia). The organization then joined General F.W. Lander's division at Paw Paw Tunnel, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia) and, on March 1, 1862, moved to the vicinity of Bloomery's Gap, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia), where a skirmish with Confederate forces occurred. Battery H next moved to Winchester, Virginia via Martinsburg, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia). At Winchester, the battery rested for two weeks. On March 18, 1862, Battery H advanced to Strasburg, Virginia, where, with other Union forces, an engagement occurred with Confederate cavalry and artillery under the command of Turner Ashby. After this encounter, the Union forces returned to Winchester, where another engagement occurred between Ashby's cavalry and Northern soldiers, including the members of Battery H, on March 22, 1862. On the next day, the Battle of Winchester erupted, with Battery H being held in reserve and not engaging the enemy.
In April and early May 1862, Battery H accompanied General Nathaniel Banks's corps throughout the Shenandoah Valley, participating in skirmishes at the Virginia communities of Edenburg, Reed's Hill, New Market, and Mount Jackson. On May 14, 1862, officials ordered Battery H and its division to Fredericksburg, Virginia, where these organizations were to join General Irvin McDowell's command. Upon reaching Falmouth, Virginia opposite of Fredericksburg, the battery rested for two days before returning to the Shenandoah Valley, where the unit encamped at Front Royal, Virginia. In early June 1862, the battery advanced southward and was within four miles of the Battle at Cross Keys, Virginia (June 8, 1862) but could not reach the battlefield, which was across a swollen Shenandoah River. The following day, the Battle of Port Republic, Virginia occurred. Battery H engaged Confederate General Thomas Jackson's command in this battle and had three of the unit's artillery pieces captured.
Following the battle of Port Republic, Battery H traveled to Alexandria, Virginia, where the outfit re-equipped. On October 17, 1862, the battery joined the Army of the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia) and advanced to the vicinity of Fredericksburg by early December 1862. The organization shelled the city as well as Confederate positions south of Fredericksburg on December 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17, 1862, including during the Battle of Fredericksburg (December 11-15, 1862). The battery remained encamped across the Rapidan River north of Fredericksburg until April 1863.
In late April 1863, Battery H advanced with much of the Army of the Potomac to Chancellorsville, Virginia, where the Northern defeat at the Battle of Chancellorsville (April 30-May 6, 1863) occurred. On May 2, Confederate General Thomas Jackson's command crushed the Union right and drove the Northern soldiers to within one mile of Commanding General Joseph Hooker's headquarters. Officials had stationed Battery H and two other batteries at this location. Due to the combined efforts of these batteries, Jackson's advance halted, saving the Union army. After this battle, the Battery H rested for several weeks before joining the Army of the Potomac's Artillery Reserve in June 1863. The battery remained with this organization for the war's duration. In early 1864, many of the battery's members reenlisted and received a thirty-day furlough to their homes in Ohio. Upon returning to the battlefield, Battery H rejoined the Artillery Reserve.
In late May 1865, officials ordered Battery H to Camp Taylor at Cleveland, Ohio, where the organization mustered out of service on June 14, 1865.