In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Artillery units in Ohio served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. In the autumn of 1861, the city council of Cincinnati, Ohio authorized the establishment of a battery of artillery. Upon completion, the battery served in the vicinity of Newport, Kentucky, protecting Cincinnati's southern approach. On December 3, 1861, the battery mustered into United States service at Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati, Ohio. The battery, now known as Battery I of the 1st Regiment Ohio Light Artillery, was to serve three years.
On January 26, 1862, Battery I departed Camp Dennison for western Virginia (modern-day West Virginia). The battery arrived at Parkersburg and then moved to New Creek. On February 10, 1862, the organization marched to Moorefield, where it engaged Confederate forces before returning to New Creek. The unit next moved to Clarksburg, where the battery remained for several weeks before marching to Beverly on March 26, 1862. In early April 1862, Battery I advanced to Monterey, where the organization participated in the Battle of Dinwiddie's Gap on April 25, 1862. The battery next moved to McDowell, where the unit fought in the Battle of Bull Pasture Mountain, having one man killed. Battery I then traveled to Franklin, where the organization joined John C. Fremont's command.
From Franklin, Battery I advanced with Fremont up the Shenandoah Valley to Cross Keys, Virginia, where the Battle of Cross Keys occurred on June 8, 1862. In this Union defeat at the hands of Confederate General Thomas Jackson, the battery had one man killed and four wounded. Battery I retreated to Middletown, Virginia, encamping at this location until early July 1862.
On July 5, 1862, Battery I advanced to Luray, Virginia, where the organization defended the Luray Valley from Confederate forces and engaged in numerous skirmishes. From Luray, the battery advanced to Culpeper, Virginia, where the unit participated in the Battle of Cedar Mountain (August 9, 1862). Following this engagement, the organization retreated to Warrenton, Virginia and then to White Sulphur Springs, Virginia, where an encounter with Confederate forces occurred. At Freeman's Ford on the Rappahannock River, the battery again engaged Confederate forces. Battery I also fought in the battle of Bull Run II (August 28-30, 1862), with the Confederacy's Army of Northern Virginia, forcing Union General John Pope's army to withdraw. In this engagement, Battery I had twelve men killed or wounded and all of its guns disabled. The battery retreated to Washington, DC, where officials re-equipped the organization.
On October 1, 1862, Battery I moved to Fairfax Court House, Virginia. One month later, the organization next traveled to Centerville, Virginia, where the unit encamped for a short period of time. By early December, the battery had arrived at Fredericksburg, Virginia. During the Battle of Fredericksburg (December 11-15, 1862), the battery shelled Confederate positions to the south of the town. Following this Union defeat, Battery I entered winter encampment at Brooke's Station, Virginia. In April 1863, the battery advanced with much of the Army of the Potomac to Chancellorsville, Virginia, where the Northern defeat at the Battle of Chancellorsville (April 30-May 6, 1863) occurred. In this engagement, the battery had five men killed and six wounded and lost one artillery piece. After this battle, the organization rested for several weeks at Brooke's Station before joining the Union's pursuit of the Confederacy's Army of Northern Virginia, which was launching its second and final invasion of the North during the Civil War. The invasion culminated in the Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (July 1-3, 1863). In this Union victory, Battery I had four men killed and fifteen wounded.
Battery I next participated in the Army of the Potomac's advance into Virginia, eventually entering camp at Catlett's Station, Virginia with the 20th Corps. In October 1863, officials dispatched the 20th Corps, including Battery I, to Chattanooga, Tennessee to help lift a Confederate siege of this city. At Chattanooga, Battery I fought in the Battles of Lookout Mountain (November 24, 1863) and Missionary Ridge (November 25, 1863). In the final battle, Union forces lifted the siege of Chattanooga. After the Union victory at Missionary Ridge, officials dispatched Battery I to Knoxville, Tennessee to assist besieged Union forces at this location. With the end of the Knoxville Campaign, the battery returned to Chattanooga.
In May 1864, Battery I embarked upon General William T. Sherman's Atlanta Campaign. The battery fought in practically every major battle of this expedition. During this campaign, the organization had forty men killed or wounded. Upon the Union's capture of Atlanta, Georgia in early September 1864, Battery I returned to Chattanooga for approximately three weeks. Officials then ordered the unit to Camp Dennison, where Battery I mustered out of service in the autumn of 1864.