In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Artillery units in Ohio served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. On October 22, 1861, Battery K of the 1st Regiment Ohio Light Artillery mustered into service at Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati, Ohio. This regiment had previously served for three months as a state organization. Battery K's members were now to serve three years.
In February 1862, officials dispatched the Battery K to Cumberland, Maryland, where the battery joined General Robert Schenck's command, and then advanced to Romney, Virginia. The organization fought in the Battle of McDowell (May 8, 1862) against General Thomas Jackson's Confederates and retreated with the rest of the Union force through the Virginia communities of Franklin, Strasburg, and Cross Keys to Port Republic, where the Battle of Port Republic occurred on June 9, 1862, resulting in another Union retreat. Battery K moved through Winchester, Virginia, encamping at Kernstown, Virginia. The battery next moved to Warrenton, Virginia and, with General John Pope's command, fought in the Battle of Cedar Mountain on August 9, 1862, a defeat for Union forces. At Lairy's Ford, Virginia, the battery again engaged Confederate soldiers. In this skirmish, Battery K had sixteen men wounded and thirty-three horses killed.
Battery K next fought in the Battle of Bull Run II (August 28-30, 1862), with the Confederacy's Army of Northern Virginia, forcing Pope's army to withdraw. The battery moved to Washington, DC, where it performed garrison duty. In the late autumn and early winter months of 1862, Battery K joined the Army of the Potomac and advanced to Fredericksburg, Virginia by early December. During the Battle of Fredericksburg (December 11-15, 1862), the battery shelled Confederate positions to the south of the town. Following this Union defeat, Battery K entered winter encampment. In late April 1863, the battery advanced with much of the Army of the Potomac to Chancellorsville, Virginia, where the Northern defeat at the Battle of Chancellorsville (April 30-May 6, 1863) occurred. After this battle, the battery rested for several weeks before joining the Union's pursuit of the Confederacy's Army of Northern Virginia, which was launching its second and final invasion of the North during the Civil War. The invasion culminated in the Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (July 1-3, 1863). In this Union victory, Battery K had five men killed and twenty-seven wounded.
Battery K next participated in the Army of the Potomac's advance into Virginia, eventually entering camp at Catlett's Station, Virginia with the 20th Corps. In October 1863, officials dispatched the 20th Corps, including the battery, to Chattanooga, Tennessee to help lift a Confederate siege of this city. At Chattanooga, Battery K fought in the Battles of Wauhatchie (October 28 and 29, 1863), Lookout Mountain (November 24, 1863), and Missionary Ridge (November 25, 1863). In the final battle, Union forces lifted the siege of Chattanooga.
Following the Union victory at Missionary Ridge, Battery K remained in the vicinity of Chattanooga. In January 1864, many members of Battery K reenlisted and received a thirty-day furlough to their homes in Ohio. Upon completion of the furlough, Battery K traveled to Bridgeport, Alabama and then to Stevenson, Alabama. The battery remained at Stevenson until July 1865, when officials ordered the unit to Camp Dennison, where the organization mustered out of service on July 17, 1865.