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Battle of Cloyd’s Mountain

May 9, 1864

The Federal victory at the Battle of Cloyd's Mountain on May 9, 1864 enabled Army of West Virginia to destroy the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad in western Virginia, the last southern railroad connecting Virginia and Tennessee.

On March 12, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant as General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States. Upon his arrival in Washington, DC, Grant drafted a plan to have the various Union armies in the field to act in concert and to strike the Confederacy from several directions. Grant would travel with Major General George Meade's Army of the Potomac in pursuit of General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia in the Richmond, Virginia area; Major General William T. Sherman would march three Federal armies south from Chattanooga, Tennessee to capture Atlanta, Georgia; and Major General Franz Sigel would invade western Virginia's Shenandoah Valley to cut off supplies to Lee's army and to prevent any Confederate attempts to attack Meade's flank.

In addition to those major offensives, Grant ordered Brigadier General George Crook to deploy his Army of West Virginia to destroy the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad in western Virginia, the last southern railroad connecting Virginia and Tennessee. In conjunction with Crook's assault, Grant directed Brigadier General William W. Averill to lead his cavalry in raids against lead and salt mines in western Virginia. After accomplishing their objectives, Crook and Averill were to combine their forces and were to join Sigel in the Shenandoah Valley.

By the time Crook and Averill began to move in early May 1864, Grant's larger offensives created the expected result of drawing defenders away from western Virginia. Confederate Brigadier General Albert G. Jenkins, commanding the few scattered units left in the area, attempted to block Crook's advance by establishing a defensive position across a gap on Cloyd's Mountain in Pulaski County.

On the morning of May 9, Crook's three brigades, totaling about 6,100 soldiers, approached the Confederates on the mountain. Skirmishing began around 9 o'clock. Seeing the strength of the Rebel position, Crook decided against a frontal assault. Instead, he swung his soldiers around to the Confederate right flank and then attacked. A pitched battle began at approximately 11 o'clock, which lasted about an hour. Much of the fighting was hand-to-hand and exceptionally violent. During the battle, gunfire ignited dry leaves, setting off a fire line that burned everything in its path, including wounded soldiers. Jenkins was mortally wounded, and his 2,400 soldiers were unable to withstand the assault of Crook's force.

Although a relatively small engagement, the Battle of Cloyd's Mountain featured unusually high casualty totals. The Confederates lost 538 men (killed, wounded, and captured/missing) — nearly 24% of their force. The Federals suffered 688 casualties (killed, wounded, and captured/missing). Crook's victory at Cloyd's Mountain enabled him to join forces with Averill and to destroy the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad, as planned.

Among the Union soldiers who fought at the Battle of Cloyd's Mountain were two future United States Presidents, Colonel Rutherford B. Hayes and Major William McKinley, both of whom were from Ohio.

Ohio units that participated in the Battle of Cloyd's Mountain included:

Infantry units:

12th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry

23rd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry

34th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry

36th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry

91st Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry

Artillery units:

1st Ohio Independent Battery

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