March 25, 1865
Fought on March 25, 1865, the Battle of Fort Stedman was a failed Confederate assault on Union fortifications east of Petersburg, Virginia, which brought about an end to the Petersburg Campaign.
On March 10, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant as General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States. Grant brought with him, from his successes in the Western Theater of the war, a reputation for the doggedness that Lincoln was seeking in his generals. Unlike previous Union generals, whose leadership was marked by their own timidity, Grant was tenacious. Upon his arrival in Washington, Grant drafted a plan to get the various Union armies in the field to act in concert. He also devised his Overland Campaign to invade east-central Virginia. Unlike previous campaigns into that area, Grant's plan focused upon defeating General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, rather than capturing or occupying geographic locations. Grant instructed General George Meade, who commanded the Army of the Potomac, "Wherever Lee goes, there you will go also." Grant realized that, with the superior resources he had at his disposal, Lee was destined to lose a war of attrition, as long as Northern troops persistently engaged the Confederates.
On May 4, 1864, Grant launched his Overland Campaign, when the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rappahannock and Rapidan Rivers, occupying an area locally known as the Wilderness. For the next eight weeks the two sides engaged in a series of horrific battles that produced unprecedented numbers of casualties. Following a bloody frontal assault at Cold Harbor that cost the Federals an estimated thirteen thousand casualties, Grant abandoned his hope to defeat Lee's army head-on. Instead, Grant decided to isolate the Army of Northern Virginia at Richmond and, then, slowly to starve it into submission by cutting off its supply lines. The key to the plan was capturing Petersburg, Virginia. By early June 1864, Grant's forces were digging in around the east side of Petersburg.
Petersburg, Virginia, is located on the south bank of the Appomattox River, roughly twenty miles below Richmond. During the Civil War, the two cities were connected by the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad, which served as an important conduit for supplies to the Confederate capital. In addition to the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad, two other rail lines converged at Petersburg. The Weldon Railroad (also called the Petersburg and Weldon Railroad) connected Petersburg to the Confederacy's last linkage to overseas markets at Wilmington, North Carolina. Farther to the west, the South Side Railroad joined Petersburg to Lynchburg, Virginia and points west. If Grant could cut these rail lines, Lee would be forced to abandon Richmond.
Although Grant's focus during the summer and fall of 1864 was on cutting off supply routes into Petersburg, he also launched several assaults north of the James River against Richmond. Grant recognized that forcing Lee to defend two fronts would thin the Confederate defenses around Petersburg, thereby enhancing the Northerner’s expectations for success. Most of the action south of Petersburg centered on the Weldon Railroad and on the Boydton Plank Road.
After the Battle of Globe Tavern (August 18-21, 1864) and the Battle of Ream's Station II (August 25, 1864), the Confederacy lost control of a stretch of the Weldon Railroad approximately ten miles south of Petersburg. The Confederates had to offload supplies traveling up the railroad from the Carolinas and other parts of the Confederacy at Stony Creek Station and then ship the goods northward in wagons along the Boydton Plank Road. At the Battle of Peeble's Farm (September 30–October 2, 1864), Grant succeeded in tightening his stranglehold on Petersburg by extending his lines south of the city and farther to the west, but he was unable to shut off supplies traveling up the Boydton Plank Road or on the South Side Railroad. On October 27 and 28, at the Battle of Boydton Plank Road, Grant made another attempt to capture the two prizes but was again unsuccessful. The Confederate supply routes into Petersburg remained open as the two sides hunkered down in their entrenchments for the winter.
During the winter, desertion, disease, and shortage of supplies weakened the Army of Northern Virginia. The Federals, however, benefitted from abundant supplies stockpiled at Grant's headquarters at City Point, Virginia,. Union officials efficiently distributed the supplies to the soldiers on the front over a network of short-line railroads constructed behind Union lines. As spring approached, Grant's forces around Petersburg outnumbered Lee's men by nearly 125,000 soldiers to fifty thousand men.
Desperate to find a way out of Petersburg before Grant cut off all supply routes and starved the Confederate army into submission, Lee met with Major General John B. Gordon in early March to consider his options. Lee and Gordon decided that their best course was to go on the offensive. Together, they planned a surprise attack on the Union lines east of Petersburg and on Grant's headquarters and supply base at City Point, Virginia. If the assault succeeded, Grant would be forced to weaken his lines south of Petersburg, enabling Lee's army to break out and to join General Joseph E. Johnston’s army in North Carolina.
The focal point of the attack was Fort Stedman, an earthen fortification only 150 yards from the Confederate lines east of Petersburg–-the narrowest divide separating the two armies. The Rebel assault force consisted of three divisions from Gordon's 2nd Corps, two brigades from Major General Bushrod R. Johnson's 4th Corps, and two brigades from Major General Cadmus M. Wilcox's 3rd Corps in reserve. The combined total of these units represented nearly one-half of the Army of Northern Virginia's infantry.
Soldiers of Major General John G. Parke's Union 9th Corps occupied Fort Stedman. They also manned Batteries IX and X north of the fort and Batteries XI and XII south of the fort. Parke's 3rd Division was in reserve behind the main line.
The Confederate plan called for the Rebels to quickly overwhelm Fort Stedman and then to move north and south to capture the adjacent Union batteries. The remainder of the strike force would then exploit the gap in the Federal lines and make a rapid assault against City Point, ten miles to the northeast.
The operation began at 4:15 a.m. on March 25. Rebel sharpshooters masquerading as deserters approached the Union lines and surprised the unsuspecting Federal pickets. Confederate engineers then removed defensive obstructions, making a path for the advancing infantry. All went according to plan and the Southerners quickly seized Fort Stedman, as well as Batteries X, XI, and XII, creating an opening nearly one thousand feet long in the Union line.
Once the gap was created, however, confusion soon followed. Hungry Confederate infantry troops stopped to forage captured Yankee rations. The Rebels also became disoriented as they searched for a second line of expected fortifications that did not exist. The delay provided time for the startled Union officers to mobilize their troops and to organize a counterattack.
Federal artillerists took up positions on a ridge east of Fort Stedman and began shelling the invaders. The Yankees launched a counterattack led by Major General Orlando B. Willcox's 1st Division, reinforced by Major General John F. Hartranft's 3rd Division. The combined Union force formed a semicircle around the bulging Confederate advance. The Rebels were caught in a blistering Federal crossfire. After Willcox's soldiers stormed the Confederate trenches, nearly two thousand Greycoats threw down their weapons and surrendered. By 7:30 a.m., the Rebel advance was spent.
When the Rebels began streaming back to Fort Stedman, Gordon realized the game was up. With Lee's approval, he ordered a withdrawal to the original Confederate lines. Still weathering the Union artillery shelling and crossfire, the Confederates suffered heavy casualties as they retreated.
The Battle of Fort Stedman was an unequivocal Union victory. The Rebels suffered roughly four thousand casualties (six hundred killed, 2,400 wounded, and one thousand missing or captured), compared to just over one thousand losses for the Union (seventy-two killed, 450 wounded, and 522 missing or captured). The assault had no effect on the Union lines east of Petersburg, and by redeploying troops from his entrenchments southwest of Petersburg, Lee opened the door for Grant to seize the Boydton Plank Road and the South Side Railroad–prizes that the Union general had coveted since the autumn of 1864. After the Confederate loss of these supply lines, the fall of Petersburg and Richmond was inevitable.
Ohio units that participated in the Battle of Fort Stedman included:
60th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
110th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
122nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
126th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- Ulysses S. Grant
- Overland Campaign
- Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- Abraham Lincoln
- Robert Edward Lee
- Joseph Eggleston Johnston
- Battle of Peeble’s Farm
- Battle of Globe Tavern
- Battle of Boydton Plank Road
- George Gordon Meade
- Battle of Ream’s Station II
- Petersburg Campaign
- Army of the Potomac (USA)
- Army of Northern Virginia