May 28, 1864
The Battle of Totopotomoy Creek, the fourth major engagement of Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign was fought between May 27 and 30, 1864.
On March 10, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant as General-in-Chief of the Armies of the United States. Grant brought with him, from his successes in the western theater of the war, a reputation for the doggedness Lincoln was seeking. Unlike previous Union generals, whose leadership was marked their own timidity, Grant was tenacious. Upon his arrival in Washington, Grant drafted a plan to get the various Union armies in the field to act in concert. He also devised his Overland Campaign to invade east-central Virginia. Unlike previous campaigns into that area, Grant's focused on defeating Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, rather than capturing or occupying geographic locations. Grant instructed General George Meade, who commanded the Army of the Potomac, "Wherever Lee goes, there you will go also." Grant realized that with the superior resources he had at his disposal, Lee was destined to lose a war of attrition, as long he was persistently engaged.
On May 4, 1864, Grant launched the Overland Campaign, when the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rappahannock and Rapidan Rivers. Although Meade nominally commanded the Army of the Potomac, as General-in-Chief of the Armies, Grant chose to accompany the army in the field so that he could personally supervise overall campaign operations.
Throughout the month of May, the Army of the Potomac and the Army of Northern Virginia slugged it out in a series of battles including the Wilderness (May 5-7), Spotsylvania Court House (May 8-21), North Anna (May 23-26), and Totopotomoy Creek (May 27-30). Although the Rebels inflicted high casualties on the Federals during those battles, Grant continued his strategy of moving south and east to Lee's right, and then re-engaging. Grant's moves forced Lee to reposition his lines continually to defend Richmond.
On May 27, Confederate forces intercepted Union cavalrymen as they attempted to cross the Pamunkey River at Dabney’s Ferry and at Crump’s Creek. The following day, cavalry forces continued to fight at the Battle of Haw's Shop, which is also known as the Battle of Enon Church. Two cavalry divisions, the 1st and 2nd, of the Union's Army of the Potomac engaged two cavalry divisions of the South's Army of Northern Virginia. Brigadier Generals Alfred Torbert and David Gregg commanded the Northern troops, while Major Generals Wade Hampton and Fitzhugh Lee led the Southern forces. The battle raged for seven hours, with Northern soldiers attempting to ford the Pamunkey River. Eventually, Southern infantry arrived on the battlefield, reinforcing the Confederate position and repulsing the Federals. The North endured 344 casualties, while the South lost approximately four hundred men killed, wounded, captured, or missing.
The Battle of Totopotomoy Creek continued to rage the next day. Confederate soldiers fortified the south bank of Totopotomoy Creek, and on May 29, Union forces launched several probes to establish the location of the Confederates' position. On May 30, the Union's II Corps drove a portion of the Confederate soldiers from their entrenchments, gaining a foothold on the south side of Totopotomoy Creek. As the II Corps advanced, Confederate soldiers, under the command of Jubal early, attacked the Union left, driving the Northerners back. The engagement ceased that evening, bringing the Battle of Totopotomoy Creek to a conclusion.
Ohio units that participated in the Battle of Totopotomoy Creek included:
6th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Cavalry
While the Battle of Haw's Shop ended in a virtual draw, the larger Battle of Totopotomoy Creek was a technical victory for the Confederates. Southerners remained in possession of the battlefield at the engagement's end. Confederates suffered 1,100 men killed, wounded, captured, or missing, while the Northerners sustained a similar number of casualties. Despite these accomplishments, the Confederates did not stop Grant's and his army's continued advance further south. Grant did not retreat as most earlier Union generals had done; Grant advanced to bring the war to a conclusion.