In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Infantry regiments formed in Ohio became known as regiments of Ohio Volunteer Infantry. They served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. In the autumn of 1861, Ohio Governor William Dennison, Jr., authorized Adams County-resident J.R.. Cockerill to organize the 70th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry. On October 14, 1861, Cockerill established a recruitment camp at West Union at the county fairgrounds. By December 25, Cockerill had recruited seven companies and parts of three more. On that day, officials ordered the incomplete regiment to Ripley, Ohio to defend Ohio's southern border from an anticipated Confederate raid. The attack did not materialize, and while at Ripley, authorities dispatched two companies, which were originally to join the 52nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, from Camp Dennison to complete the 70th Regiment. The men in the 70th were to serve for three years.
The 70th remained at Ripley until February 17, 1862, when officials ordered the regiment to Paducah, Kentucky, where it joined the 3rd Brigade of the 5th Division. Authorities brigaded the 70th with the 48th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry and the 72nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry. On March 10, the 70th traveled on transports up the Tennessee River to Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee. On March 17, the regiment encamped three miles from the landing near the Shiloh Church on the Corinth Road. On April 3, General William T. Sherman ordered the entire 3rd Brigade, including the 70th, to conduct a reconnaissance in front of the Union army. The brigade discovered no Confederate forces within five miles of the Union lines. On April 4, Confederate cavalry captured eight men, including one officer, of the 70th. The next day, the regiment, serving on the picket line, engaged in skirmishing with Southern pickets and cavalry most of the day. On April 6, 1862, the Battle of Shiloh erupted. Confederate forces quickly drove the 70th from the picket line back to the main Union encampment. Here, the regiment regrouped and withstood the Confederate assault for two hours before slowly withdrawing. At the end of the first day of the engagement, the 70th had fallen back one and one-half miles from its original position. On Shiloh's second day, the 70th engaged the Confederates the entire day, helping the Union attain victory. At the battle's conclusion, the commanding officer of the 70th issued the following report:
CAMP, SHILOH, April 10, 1862
SIR; On Sunday morning, April 6, 1862, an alarm was made in the front of this brigade, and I called my regiment from breakfast and formed it in line of battle on color line. I then heard heavy firing on the left and in front of our line, and advanced my regiment about 200 paces in the woods, and formed line of battle, in pursuance of your order. I ordered my regiment to open fire, with the left thrown back, and did great execution among the enemy, who retired into the hollow. We remained in this position two hours. After this I found that the enemy was turning our left flank about one-half mile to the left of Shiloh Meeting-House, and was rapidly advancing at almost right angles with our line. Having received no order I retired to my color line, and while in this position the enemy from the hill in front opened upon us with shot and shell, some few were killed and several wounded. We then retired to the rear of the camp, having no support, and seeing the enemy the enemy near by on the left flank, I formed my regiment in line of battle in the small ravine and at right angles with the camp, and remained in that position until ordered by Capt. Hammond to retire to the Purdy road and form line of battle. I formed on the road, but so many retiring troops mingled with us we became much broken and separated. I retired about 400 yards by the right flank, and finding the rebels advancing almost parallel with us, we opened fire, which did good service. This was about 12 m. Noon after this Col.'s McDowell, Hicks, and others formed their regiments and I fell in with them, and we, advanced to the northeast across the open fields and into the fire then raging in McClernand's camp, where I was ordered by Gen. Sherman to file to the left in line of battle which maneuver I executed well under the circumstances, the enemy's fire being very heavy. All the troops were forced back to the end of the camp under this tremendous fire, and the loss on both sides must have been heavy. We were compelled to fall back, and I again formed line on the tops of the next ridge, when you arrived with your regiment and we bivouacked for the night, being exposed most of the time to a severe rain-storm. Our pickets were placed in advance by your order, and all was reasonably quiet during the night.
Early on the morning of the 7th a severe cannonade was opened by Gen. Wallace's battery on our right, and we were ordered to advance, which we did in good order, the Forty-eighth on the right, Seventieth in the center, and Seventy-second on the left. We, under your orders and that of Gen. Sherman, after advancing about one-half mile, were moved to the right and ascended a hill and passed by the flank under a severe fire, where we were ordered to half and remained for about two hours, while the batteries on both sides were in full play. About 12 m. we were ordered to advance, and the Seventy-second, Forty-eighth, and Seventieth (in this order) advanced to the southeast about three-quarters of a mile into McClernand's camp (precisely the position occupied by the Seventieth the day before), where we deployed into line under the immediate orders and presence of Gen. Sherman (superintended by yourself), where we opened fire with good effect upon the enemy, one-half of the Seventieth Regt. firing to the right and the other to the left oblique. The enemy fell back under this fire, and we advanced to the edge of the woods at the head of the camp near a pond.
Our ammunition at this point failed, and part of Gen. McCook's division coming up opened upon the enemy in fine style. The whole brigade retired to received a fresh supply of ammunition, which as soon as we received we again advanced over the same ground and towards our encampment; but the enemy was rapidly retiring, and we entered our original camp about 5 o'clock p.m. Our camp had been torn down by the enemy, and we lay upon our arms during the night exposed to a severe rain-storm, the enemy having hastily retreated and with great loss.
Our camp was plundered of nearly everything-officer's uniforms, camp equipments, blankets, knapsacks, haversacks, clothing, &c. Our men, when called out on Sunday morning, supposed it was only to support the pickets, who had been in constant alarm for the two preceding days, and we never made any provision whatever for any retreat. In this great battle for two consecutive days, from morning till night, under the most terrific fire of modern times, I am happy to state that our loss is comparatively small; Killed, 9; wounded, 57; missing, 36.* A large number of non-commissioned officers and privates behaved themselves under the most trying circumstances like old veterans. They deserve to be remembered for their good conduct. Many other brave men were broken and separated in the melee, and found their way into other regiments; some others were panic-stricken, and did not return until the battle was over. I believe the regiment will at any time prove itself effective, and trust its conduct in the battle will elicit your commendation.
Lieut.-Col. Loudon and Maj. McFarren gave me their aid and support and displayed great gallantry and good conduct. Each of these officers had their horses shot in the engagement. Capt.'s Brown, Summers, and Wilson discharged their duties in every particular, and proved themselves to be brave, gallant, and effective officers, and stood with the regiment from first to last. Capt. Naylor become separated from the regiment during the 6th, and returned early on the morning of the 7th, and fought with us throughout the day. First Lieut.'s Philips (adjutant of the regiment) and Campbell performed their duties in every respect as brave and gallant officers. Lieut. Drennin became separated on Sunday about 2 p.m. returned to the regiment early on Monday, and performed his duty throughout the day. Second Lieut.'s Spurgeon, of B; of E; Nelson, Cooper, Denham, Ellis, and Adams performed their duties to my entire satisfaction. Lieut. Taylor was wounded early in the action and has since had his right arm amputated, being the only severely wounded officer in the regiment. In submitting this short report, made so soon after the action, I may have omitted some particulars of small moment, but it is in all respects substantially correct. I will submit a more minute account at some future, day, and speak more fully in reference to individual conduct both as to men and officers.
I desire to call your attention to the fact that, on the morning of the 8th instant, this regiment, under the orders of Gen. Sherman, turned out about 500 men in line of battle, with nearly all its officers, and marched under your immediate direction about 5 miles towards Corinth after the retreating enemy, and returned about 10 p.m. after a heavy and fatiguing march.
You were an eye-witness of the whole of this day's proceedings, and can speak of the efficiency and good conduct of the entire regiment, both officers and men, throughout the entire day.
J. R. COCKERILL,
Cmdg. Seventieth Regt. Ohio Volunteer Infantry.
Comdg. Fourth Ohio Brig. Fifth Div., Army of the Tennessee.
Following the Battle of Shiloh, the 70th participated in the Siege of Corinth, Mississippi. Upon the Union's capture of this city, the 70th moved with General Sherman to Memphis, Tennessee, where officials now brigaded the regiment with the 53rd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, the 97th Regiment Indiana Infantry, the 99th Regiment Indiana Infantry and two batteries of artillery. In November 1862, the 70th, with the bulk of Sherman's force, advanced southwards toward Vicksburg, Mississippi along the Tallahatchie River. The Northerners were to first capture Jackson, Mississippi, before advancing directly to Vicksburg. Unfortunately for the Northerners, their supplies were destroyed at Holly Springs, Mississippi, forcing them to retreat to the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, bringing this campaign to an end. These Northern forces would advance again towards Vicksburg during the winter of 1862-1863, traveling along the Tallahatchie River. The 70th participated in the Siege of Vicksburg, and after the Union military captured this city on July 4, 1863, the regiment next joined the siege of Jackson, Mississippi. Following Jackson's capture, the 70th moved to the Black River, where officials added the 48th Regiment Illinois Infantry and Company F of the 1st Illinois Light Artillery to the same brigade.
In September 1863, the 70th and its brigade marched to Memphis, Tennessee and then departed for Chattanooga, Tennessee, where Confederate forces were laying siege to a Union army. The 70th marched through northern Mississippi, northern Alabama, and southern Tennessee, arriving at Chattanooga in time to participate in the assaults on Missionary Ridge on November 25, 1863 and the actual Battle of Missionary Ridge on November 26, 1863. The Union victory at this battle prompted the Confederate forces to withdraw. The 70th participated in the Union pursuit of the retreating Confederates as far as Ringgold, Georgia, before officials dispatched the regiment and the rest of its corps to Knoxville, Tennessee to aid beleaguered Union forces at this location. After the successful conclusion of the Knoxville Campaign for the Northerners, the 70th moved to Huntsville, Alabama and went into winter encampment at Scottsboro, Alabama.
In January 1864, many of the regiment's members reenlisted and received a furlough to return briefly to their homes in Ohio. By May 1864, the 70th had returned from furlough and had rejoined General Sherman's army, which was embarking upon the Atlanta Campaign. The 70th participated in every large battle of the Atlanta Campaign. During the campaign, officers of the 70th filed the following reports:
HDQRS. SEVENTIETH OHIO INFANTRY. East Point, Ga., September 9, 1864.
SIR: I have the honor to report the operations of this command from the 4th day of August, 1864, to the 3d day-of September, 1864, inclusive:
On the 4th the regiment occupied a line of works in reserve to the brigade, where we remained until the 9th, when we advanced and occupied a line in reserve to the left of the First Iowa Battery. On the 11th four companies were sent to the front and left of the brigade line, and regularly relieved until the 14th, when the whole regiment was advanced to that line, forming the left of the line of the First Brigade, connecting with the right of the Second Brigade, of this division. This position was an unfortunate one, as it was constantly exposed to the fire of the enemy's battery on its left flank, enfilading the entire line of the regiment. The line had to be approached through saps, and the men were compelled to dig holes in the ground in rear to protect themselves from the effects of the enemy's shells. Notwithstanding all the precaution possible we had 6 enlisted men killed, and 2 commissioned officers and 28 enlisted men wounded. We remained in this position until the evening of the 26th, when we withdrew and marched to the right on the Sandtown road. Leaving the Sandtown road, we marched toward the Atlanta and West Point Railroad and camped in the woods on the night of the 27th. On the 28th we marched to the railroad, and, in connection with the brigade, destroyed the railroad for three miles and camped. On the 29th we remained in camp. On the 30th we marched to near Jonesborough, Ga., and at night threw up works within 200 yards of the enemy's main line. On the 31st the enemy made a reconnaissance in force, and approached in view of the right of our line, but were easily repulsed.
We remained in this position until September 2, when we were ordered to pursue the enemy, and marched six miles south of Jonesborough, Ga., and fortified a position in front and right of our brigade, in full view of the rebel lines. On the 3d we received the welcome news that Atlanta was ours.
All the officers and men acquitted themselves to my entire satisfaction.
Our losses since the 26th of August are 1 commissioned officer killed, 1 commissioned officer and 3 enlisted men wounded.
I cannot close this report without adverting to the great loss the regiment has sustained in the death of its adjutant, First Lieut. Andrew Urban. He was killed on the 3d instant, while communicating the glorious news of the evacuation of Atlanta by the enemy and its occupation by our forces. He was shot by a sharpshooter, a minie-ball passing through his chest. He exclaimed, "Oh! boys, I am killed," and instantly expired. Thus fell the model adjutant, the brave and faithful soldier, and generous friend. The regiment mourns his loss.
A list of casualties is herewith submitted.*
I am, captain, respectfully, your obedient servant,
H. L. PHILIPS,
Capt., Seventieth Ohio Veteran Volunteers.
Capt. JOHN CAMPBELL,
A. A. A. G. 1st Brig., 4th Div. 15th Army Corps.
HDQRS. SEVENTIETH OHIO VETERAN VOLUNTEERS, Before Atlanta, Ga., July 24, 1864.
SIR: I have the honor to submit to you the following report of the operations of the Seventieth Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry on the 22d day of July, 1864:
On the morning of the 22d this regiment had on the skirmish line in front of the Third Brigade, Fourth Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, forty men, commanded by Capt. Watson Foster. Early in the day the skirmish line advanced to take the enemy's works, from which they were falling back, and Capt. Foster was severely wounded in the left leg and had to be carried from the field. I was ordered by Col. Oliver, commanding the brigade, to move my regiment forward to the enemy's works, some 400 yards south of the railroad from Atlanta to Decatur, and change them-to operate in the direction of Atlanta. About noon firing commenced on the left and rear of the Army of the Tennessee. The firing increased rapidly and the regiment was ordered to be ready for action, and in a few moments was ordered to move southeast to meet the advance, as the firing indicated that the enemy were gaining ground, but before reaching the scene of action was ordered to return to the line of works which we had changed, and about 500 or 600 yards from the railroad, and the opposite side from which we had occupied, to hold that position until another regiment could reach that point; and as soon as relieved moved toward the railroad, but before reaching that point a captain on general staff requested Gen. Harrow to send a regiment to the point where the enemy were heavily engaging the Seventeenth Army Corps, which the general did, and ordered me to report to Col. Walcutt, commanding Second Brigade, which was then engaging the enemy. Col. Walcutt ordered the regiment held in support, but was soon ordered to the works, some 500 yards south of the railroad, to meet a column advancing from the direction of Atlanta. The regiment soon became engaged, and the firing was very heavy along the entire line for some time, but the line on our right began to waver, and Capt. Campbell, of Col. Oliver's staff, brought the order to fall back to the works from which the advance had been made in the morning. The regiment was formed out of the works to march to the point indicated, but before the regiment had entirely filed away from the works I saw Gen. Harrow and sent Capt. Summers to him for instructions, and, finding that he wished the works held, I ordered the regiment to return double-quick to the position from which it had just been ordered. This order was received by the regiment with great cheering. The enemy's advance were driven back, and for some distance on our right the lines were again established in the works, but the enemy rallied and charged again with greater desperation, and the musketry became a perfect crash, and our entire line to the right of the Seventieth Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry, so far as we could see, gave way, and the enemy took possession of their works, and the advance reached a point some 200 yards in the rear of the works on our right. I brought two companies from the left of the regiment to the right, and formed all the detachments that I could collect at right angles to the line, and directed a fire against the advance and flank of the enemy that had taken the works on our right. The regiment held its position without wavering, and at frequent periods gave tremendous cheers, and kept up the most terrific crash of musketry that I ever heard from any regiment, until the enemy were driven back in confusion, and the line again established. I do not pretend to say what the result would have been had the Seventieth Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry fallen back, but do say that both officers and men are entitled to great credit for their gallant conduct under such trying circumstances.
Capt. J. F. Summers, acting field officer, was ordered, about the time the firing commenced, to take charge of the skirmish line of the division, but reported to the regiment as soon as the skirmish line was brought back to the works, and was with me during the hottest of the battle, rendering me valuable assistance, and distinguished himself for gallantry in this, as well as in other engagements.
My adjutant, Lieut. Andrew Urban, was with me during the entire engagement, giving me valuable aid, and distinguished himself for gallantry at every point in which the regiment was engaged.
Lieut. Charles A. Grimes, regimental quartermaster, was, in complience with orders, in charge of his train.
Surg. Robert L. von Harlingon's health prevented him from being with the regiment, but as far as his health permitted, he rendered valuable service in the hospital as an operator.
Lieut. Townsend Heaton, Company B, in the absence of the surgeon, fulfilled the duties in manner highly creditable to himself.
Capts. Louis Love, James Drennin, John C. Nelson, and James Brown displayed great coolness and bravery in handling their companies throughout the entire engagement.
First Lieuts. Walter S. Cox, William C. Marlatt, David A. Dodd, Richard McKee, Marquis de L. Hare, John W. Kropp, and William F. McDaniel, and Second Lieut. George W. Buesart performed their duties with coolness and bravery highly commendable.
Casualties: Commissioned officers-wounded, 2. Enlisted men killed, 4; wounded, 9; missing, 6. Aggregate loss, 21.
I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. B. BROWN,
Maj., Comdg. Seventieth Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infty.
Capt. H. L. PHILIPS,
A. A. A. G., 3d Brig., 4th Div., 15th Army Corps.
HDQRS. SEVENTIETH OHIO VETERAN VOLUNTEERS, Before Atlanta, Ga., August 6, 1864.
SIR: In compliance with circular, Hdqrs. First Brigade, Fourth Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, I submit the following detailed report of the operations of the Seventieth Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry, since the 6th day of May, 1864:
The regiment composing part of the Third Brigade, Fourth Division, Fifteenth Army Corps, left camp near Chattanooga and marched to Resaca, where it took an active part in the operations of that memorable engagement.
The rebels evacuated Resaca during the night of the 16th [15th]; started in pursuit the 17th [16th], and arrived in the neighborhood of Kingston, May 19, where we rested three days. Left camp near Kingston, May 23, and arrived near Dallas May 26. Moved forward, took position on the morning of the 27th, and threw up works; skirmishing continually in our front, sometimes very heavy. The enemy attempted to turn the right of the division on the 28th; did not appear in force on our front, although our skirmishers were driven in.
Received orders at 3 a. m., June 1, to get ready to move: moved about daylight to near Dallas, remained two hours, then marched to New Hope Church, relieving the Twentieth Army Corps. June 2, moved to the first line of works, relieving the Forty-eighth Illinois. Relieved, June 3, by the Ninety-ninth Indiana. June 5, we relieved the Forty-eighth Illinois, moving to the first line of works. About daylight our skirmishers advanced and found that the rebels had evacuated during the night. Captured 1 lieutenant and 7 men. Started the same day in pursuit, marching about eight miles. Arrived at Acworth, Ga., June 6, 1864, where we remained three days. June 10, left Acworth, moved forward about five miles. The regiment was ordered toward evening to go to right and find Gen. Thomas' left. Had proceeded about half a mile when we were ordered back. June 15, ordered, with the brigade, to the left. The division formed in three lines of battle. Our regiment occupied the left of the second line and was uncovered by the Second Brigade, excepting skirmishers. At 3 o'clock the command forward was given; the regiment moved across the field in fine style. Coming to a wide ditch the men plunged in, waist deep, keeping the guns and accouterments dry. Quickly reforming on the other side of the ditch we pushed through a narrow strip of woods, lately occupied by the enemy, to an open field, where we halted some ten minutes and then pushed forward in support of the skirmishers. The division being relieved by the Seventeenth Corps about dark we marched to the rear. June 16, about noon we were ordered by Col. Oliver, commanding Third Brigade, to relieve a regiment of the Second Division on picket, covering the rear. Relieved on the 19th and marched to the second line of works, to the left of the railroad, where we remained in reserve until June 25, when we were ordered and marched at dark, and about 11 o'clock relieved a regiment of Gen. Jeff. C. Davis' division, of the Fourteenth Army Corps.
Occupied these works until July 3, when we started in pursuit of the enemy, they having evacuated their strong position on Kenesaw Mountain the night previous; arrived at Marietta about 11 o'clock. July 5, arrived near the Chattahoochee River; took position on the left of the Seventeenth Army Corps. July 7, the skirmish fire became very heavy. About 11 p. m. the regiment was ordered forward as supports and occupied a ridge in rear of the skirmishers, which we fortified. July 10, the enemy evacuated their works during the night. At 6 a. m. three companies of the Seventieth Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry were ordered to advance, the balance of the regiment in support. The skirmishers advanced to within 300 yards of the river; the regiment took possession of the rebel works. July 11, we deployed the regiment, in compliance with orders, so as to cover half of the First Division front. July 12, relieved about 7 a. m. by the Ninety-ninth Indiana. Marched at 5 p. m. in direction of Marietta.
July 14, crossed the Chattahoochee River and camped about two miles from and south of the river, where we remained two days. July 17, marched at 5.30 o'clock in direction of Atlanta. July 20, marched through Decatur and took the road to Atlanta. Moved very cautiously. When within three miles of Atlanta found the enemy in force. The regiment here occupied the second line. July 22, the enemy evacuated their works during the previous night. About 9 a. m. the regiment was ordered forward by Col. Oliver, commanding Third Brigade, to the rifle-pits left by the enemy, with instructions to remodel them to operate in the direction of Atlanta. For the operations of the regiment during the battle I refer you to Maj. Brown's official report inclosed.* July 26, received orders to be ready to move at midnight; marched at the appointed time. July 27, arrived about dark at the extreme right of the army. July 28, moved into position and had a terrible battle. Refer you to inclosed official report.+ The regiment was during the battle, on the left of the division.
August 2, moved at 12 o'clock to the second line of works. August 3, Maj. William B. Brown, commanding the regiment, detailed to take charge of 900 men to charge the position held by the rebel skirmishers. At 4 o'clock the command "forward" was given. His men gained the ridge but he did not; he fell, pierced by a minieball in the left side. When he reached the regiment he was unconscious, and remained so until his death, which occurred about 8 p. m. In the loss of the major the regiment has lost its noble leader, and the country an officer that could illy be spared at the present moment.
Casualties from May 6 to August 3, 1864: Commissioned officers--killed, 3; wounded, 4. Enlisted men-killed, 10; died of wounds, 5; wounded, 50; missing, 10. Aggregate loss, 82.
I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Capt., Comdg. Seventieth Ohio Vet. Vol. Infty.
Capt. H. L. PHILIPS,
A. A. A. G., 1st Brig., 4th Div., 15th Army Corps.
HDQRS. SEVENTIETH OHIO VETERAN VOLUNTEERS, Before Atlanta, Ga., August 6, 1864.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following, which is from the pen of Maj. William B. Brown, in command of the regiment at the time of the engagement, July 28, 1864:
HDQRS. SEVENTIETH OHIO VETERAN VOLUNTEERS, Before Atlanta, Ga., July 30, 1864.
SIR: I have the honor to report to you that in the engagement on the 25th day of July, 1864, the Seventieth Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry occupied the left flank of the Fourth Division, Fifteenth Army Corps. and connecting with the right flank and nearly at right angles to the line of battle of the First Division Fifteenth Army Corps, covering the flank of the First Division during the maneuvers.
About the time the First Division came into position my regiment received a heavy fire from the enemy and could not reply, as the skirmishers covering the Fourth Division were ordered to connect with the skirmishers of the First Division. I was satisfied that the enemy were so close that there must be a break in the skirmish line and ordered an officer and thirty men to cover my front, and notified Col. Oliver, commanding brigade, who ordered me to send in compliance with orders from Gen. Harrow, a company for their support, and the skirmish line connected. The break in the skirmish line was the loss of connection in the First Division. The Fourth Division moved forward to take the ridge in front, which brought my regiment about 200 yards to the right and front of the First Division, but finding that the First Division were not going to advance I threw back the left of my regiment, to connect as nearly as possible the First and Fourth Divisions. The enemy's skirmishers were driven back in our front, but continued a brisk fire of musketry and occasionally artillery. The regiment threw up temporary works of old logs and poles, and were strengthening those feeble works when the enemy drove our skirmishers hack and charged forward with great confidence.
The fighting then became general on our line, the enemy appearing determined to drive us from our position. This column was checked after a severe engagement, and our regiment had again commenced strengthening the works when they were attacked the second time with greater fury and numbers. The fighting now became most terrific; the enemy pushed forward under our destructive fire to within twenty-five paces of our lines and planted their colors. This column was driven back about fifty yards, with the loss of their colors, which were shot down, when they appeared to rally on a second line, and made a most stubborn resistance. The Seventieth Ohio Veteran Volunteers kept pouring a murderous fire into the enemy, which kept them from advancing, although they attempted it several times. About this time the gallant One hundred and third Illinois Infantry came up to cover a gap that was between the First and Fourth Divisions, their right overlapping the left of the Seventieth Ohio. Shortly after the arrival of the One hundred and third Illinois, the Forty-sixth Ohio Veteran Volunteers came to our assistance, which resulted in soon driving the enemy from our front in great confusion. The alacrity and gallantry displayed by the officers and men of the One hundred and third Illinois and Forty-sixth Ohio in relieving our exhausted ranks will endear those regiments to us as long as memory exists. The fighting ceased in our front about 5 o'clock, and soon one company from the Seventieth Ohio Veteran Volunteers (Company H, Lieut. D. A. Dodd commanding) and one company from the Forty-sixth Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry, we redeployed as skirmishers, and advanced some 200 yards to the front, where they remained during the night.
The colors that were captured in our front were shot down by the Seventieth Ohio Veteran Volunteers and brought in by a member of the Forty-sixth Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry, who, I understand, still retains them.
In the engagement of July 28 the gentlemanly and gallant Capt. J. F. Summers, acting field officer, was killed while cheering and encouraging the men. First Lieut. John W. Krepp was killed at the close of the battle, after acquitting himself in the most gallant manner. Capt. John C. Nelson was wounded on the skirmish line at the commencement of the engagement; he also acquitted himself with great credit.
The officers, in the language of our lamented major, "Acquitted themselves to my entire satisfaction, without a single exception." The following is a list present on the day of battle: Maj. William B. Brown, commanding; Capt. J. F. Summers, acting field officer; Lieut. Andrew Urban, adjutant; Capt. Louis Love, Company E; Capt. James Drennin, Company F; Capt. John C. Nelson, Company C; First Lieut. Walter S. Cox, Company D; First Lieut. M. de L. Hare, Company A; First Lieut. R. McKee, Company C; First Lieut. William F. McDaniel, Company G; First Lieut. David A. Dodd, Company H; First Lieut. John W. Kropp, Company I; First Lieut. William C. Marlatt, Company K; Second Lieut. George W. Buesart, Company D; First Lieut. Townsend Heaton, Company B, detailed in medical department.
I would like to mention every man who distinguished himself on that day, but it would be too lengthy; it embraces the muster-rolls of the entire regiment.
Casualties: Commissioned officers-killed, 2; wounded, 1. Enlisted men-killed, 5; wounded, 18; missing, 4. Aggregate, 30.
I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Capt., Comdg. Seventieth Ohio Vet. Vol. Infty.
Capt. H. L. PHILIPS,
A. A. A. G., 3d Brig., 4th Div., 15th Army Corps.
Following the Union's capture of Atlanta in early September 1864, the 70th next participated in Sherman's March to the Sea. The regiment assisted Union forces in capturing Fort McAllister near Savannah, Georgia. The 70th was the first Union regiment to enter this Confederate fortification. After resting for several weeks at Savannah, the 70th embarked upon the Carolinas Campaign. The regiment participated in most major engagements of this campaign.
Following Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston's surrender, the 70th marched from North Carolina to Washington, DC via Richmond, Virginia. At Washington, the regiment participated in the Grand Review. In early June, the regiment departed the nation's capital for Louisville, Kentucky, and then officials sent the 70th to Little Rock, Arkansas, where its members performed garrison duty. The 70th Regiment mustered out of service at Little Rock on August 14, 1865.
During the 70th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry's term of service, eighty-nine men, including five officers, died on the battlefield. An additional ninety-eight enlisted men succumbed to disease or accidents.
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"70th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry," Ohio Civil War Central, 2020, Ohio Civil War Central. 26 Nov 2020 <http://www.www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=623>
"70th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry." (2020) In Ohio Civil War Central, Retrieved November 26, 2020, from Ohio Civil War Central: http://www.www.ohiocivilwarcentral.com/entry.php?rec=623
- 52nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- 53rd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- 72nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- Army of the Tennessee
- Atlanta Campaign
- Battle of Missionary Ridge
- Battle of Shiloh
- Camp Dennison
- Carolinas Campaign
- Joseph E. Johnston
- Knoxville Campaign
- Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- Sherman's March to the Sea
- Siege of Vicksburg
- William T. Sherman