February 9, 1826 – December 26, 1886
Often referred to as "Black Jack" by his men, Major General John A. Logan rose from a volunteer with the Illinois Infantry in 1861, to command the Union Army of the Tennessee by the end of the American Civil War.
John Alexander Logan was born February 6, 1826, on the large farm of his prominent family at what is now the location of Murphysboro, Illinois. He was the first of nine children born to Dr. James Logan and Elizabeth Jenkins Logan. Logan's mother was the sister of future Illinois Lieutenant Governor A. M. Jenkins. Logan's father served as a surgeon during the Black Hawk War (1812) and later as a member of the Illinois State Legislature. Logan County, in central Illinois, was named in honor of Dr. Logan.
Young Logan's early education in local schools was complemented with instruction provided by private tutors. In 1840, he enrolled at Shiloh Academy, at Shiloh Hill, Illinois, to complete his education.
During the Mexican-American War (1846–1848), Logan volunteered for service and was commissioned as a lieutenant with the First Illinois Regiment. He served as his unit's adjutant in New Mexico, but he saw no combat. After being mustered out in 1848, Logan returned to Illinois, where he served as Jackson County Clerk. He subsequently studied law, graduating from Louisville University in 1851 and then entering the legal profession. In 1852, Logan was elected to fill his father's seat in the state legislature.
Three years later, Logan met Mary Cunningham, the daughter of Captain John M. Cunningham, with whom Logan had served in the Mexican-American War. Following a short courtship, the couple was married on November 27, 1855. Their marriage, which lasted thirty-one years, produced three children, two of whom survived to adulthood.
Shortly after his marriage, Logan and his bride moved to Benton in south-central Illinois, where Logan served as prosecuting attorney for the third judicial district, which embraced sixteen counties. One year later, in 1856, Logan was elected to a second term in the state legislature. As a member of the Democratic Party, Logan's views were closely aligned with Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas.
In 1858, Logan was elected to serve the first of two consecutive terms in the U.S. House of Representatives. As a member of the 36th and 37th Congresses, Logan endorsed the concept of popular sovereignty, supported the Fugitive Slave Act, and opposed abolition.
When the Civil War erupted, Logan erased any doubts regarding alleged pro-Southern sympathies by serving as a civilian volunteer with a Michigan regiment during the Battle of Bull Run I (July 21, 1861). Logan then returned to Illinois, where he delivered a stirring speech in support of the Union and announced his intention to raise a volunteer unit to fight for the country’s reunification. After recruiting the 31st Illinois Infantry Regiment, which was mustered into service on September 18, 1861, Logan was elected as colonel of the unit. Logan and his men were assigned to forces commanded by Ulysses S. Grant and fought at the Battle of Belmont (November 7, 1861), the Battle of Fort Henry (February 6, 1862), and the Battle of Fort Donelson (February 11, 1862–February 16, 1862). During the battle of Fort Donelson, Logan was shot through his left shoulder and again through his right thigh. After the battle, he was promoted to brigadier-general, effective March 21, 1862.
On April 2, 1862, Logan resigned his seat in Congress to concentrate on his military duties. He recovered from his wounds in time to lead the 32nd Illinois Infantry Regiment during the Union victory at the Battle of Shiloh (April 6–7, 1862).
During the Siege of Corinth (April 29 to May 30, 1862), Logan commanded the 1st Brigade of the 1st Division of the Army of the Tennessee until May 2, 1862. He also temporarily commanded the division briefly during the operation.
In the spring of 1863, Logan was promoted to major general, effective November 29, 1862. During the Vicksburg Campaign (December 26, 1862–July 4, 1863), Logan commanded the 3rd Division of the 17th Corps of the Army of Tennessee. When the Mississippi River stronghold fell on July 4, 1863, Logan's division was the first to enter the city. General Grant then appointed Logan as military governor of Vicksburg. Logan held the position long enough to oversee the initial distribution of food and other relief to the city's residents. He then returned to Illinois on leave to drum up support for the war.
Shortly after he returned to active duty in September, Logan benefitted from a shakeup in the Union army's chain-of-command in the West. On October 16, 1863, the War Department issued General Orders Number 337, naming Ulysses S. Grant to command the newly created Military Division of the Mississippi, encompassing the Departments of the Ohio, the Cumberland, and the Tennessee—nearly all Union forces between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. On October 19, Grant issued General Orders No. 2, naming William T. Sherman to succeed him as commander of the Department and Army of the Tennessee. Logan assumed Sherman's command of the 15th Corps on October 27, 1863.
Logan commanded the 15th Corps throughout most of the Atlanta Campaign (May 7-September 2, 1864). He temporarily assumed command of the Army of the Tennessee for six days (July 22, 1864 to July 27, 1864.) after his superior officer, Major General John A. McClernand, was killed during the Battle of Atlanta (July 22, 1863). To Logan's disappointment, Sherman appointed Major General Oliver O. Howard as McClernand's long-term replacement on July 26. Howard replaced Logan as head of the army on the next day.
During Sherman's March to the Sea (November 15, 1864–December 21, 1864), Logan was back in Illinois stumping for President Lincoln's reelection. He returned to the 15th Corps in time to lead his men during Sherman's Carolinas Campaign (February–April 1865).
When President Andrew Johnson selected Howard as the Freedmen's Bureau's first and only commissioner, the War Department issued General Orders No. 96, naming Logan as commander of the Army of the Tennessee on May 19, 1865. On May 24, 1865, Logan had the honor of leading the Army of the Tennessee on the Grand Review through the streets of the nation's capital. During the next two months, Logan oversaw the process of mustering the Army of Tennessee out of volunteer service.
During his four years of military service, Logan fought in many of the major campaigns of the Western Theater of the Civil War. Often referred to as "Black Jack" by his men, Logan was unquestionably one of the more able of the army's political general officers who did not attend the U.S. Military Academy.
Following the Civil War, Logan returned to Illinois and resumed his political career as a member of the Republican Party. In the autumn of 1866, Illinois voters elected Logan to an at-large seat in the U.S. House of Representatives. Logan served in the 40th Congress (March 4, 1867 to March 4, 1869) and the 41st Congress (March 4, 1869 to March 4, 1871). During his first term, Logan was appointed as one of the House managers of President Johnson's impeachment trial.
In 1868, Logan was elected as Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Army of the Republic, a post that he held until 1871. During his term, he was instrumental in the establishment of Memorial Day (then called Decoration Day) as a national holiday dedicated to honoring, "comrades who died in defense of their country during the late rebellion. . . ."
In 1870, the Illinois legislature selected Logan for a seat in the U.S. Senate. He served in the 42nd through 44th Congresses (March 4, 1871–March 4, 1877), but political maneuvering by Governor Richard J. Oglesby denied him a second consecutive term. Logan was reelected to the Senate in 1878 and served in the 46th through the 49th Congresses (March 4, 1879 to March 4, 1877) until his death in 1886. In 1884, Logan was the Republican running-mate of Senator James G. Blaine, who lost the U.S presidential election to Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland.
In mid-December 1886, Logan was afflicted with an acute attack of rheumatism. He died at his home in Washington, D.C. on December 26, from "congestion of the brain" related to his rheumatoid condition. After his body lay in state in the U.S, Capitol, Logan was entombed at the U.S. Soldiers' Home National Cemetery, now known as the U. S. Soldiers' and Airmen's Home National Cemetery.
- Vicksburg Campaign
- William Tecumseh Sherman
- Battle of Atlanta
- Ulysses S. Grant
- Battle of Bull Run I
- John Alexander McClernand
- Battle of Fort Donelson
- Battle of Fort Henry
- Sherman’s March to the Sea
- Carolinas Campaign
- Andrew Johnson
- Oliver Otis Howard
- Army of the Tennessee
- Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
- Battle of Shiloh
- Siege of Corinth
- Atlanta Campaign
- General Orders, No. 316 (U.S. War Department)
- General Orders, No. 349 (U.S. War Department)
- Mexican-American War
- Stephen Arnold Douglas