In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Artillery batteries formed in Ohio became known as batteries of Ohio Volunteer Artillery. They served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. On April 29, 1863, the 21st Ohio Independent Battery of Ohio Volunteer Artillery mustered into service at Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati, Ohio. This organization was also known as Patterson's Battery, named after J.W. Patterson, one of the battery's captains. The men in the battery were to serve three years.
On May 8, 1863, officials dispatched four of the 21st's gun crews, under the command of Captain Patterson, to West Virginia to assist other Union forces. Upon completion of this expedition, the members of the 21st returned to Camp Dennison. On May 20, 1863, the entire battery boarded the Union gunboat Exchange. On the boat, the 21st served as a military escort for the Copperhead Clement Vallandigham, who had been banished from the United States for his Southern loyalties. The battery traveled as far as Louisville, Kentucky, before returning to Camp Dennison. In late June and July 1863, Confederate cavalrymen, under the command of John Hunt Morgan, conducted a raid through southern Indiana and southern Ohio. Officials placed four of the 21st's gun crews on steamers that patrolled the Ohio River, hoping to intercept the Confederate raiders.
On September 22, 1863, the 21st Battery arrived at Camp Nelson, Kentucky. Less than two weeks later, the organization advanced to Greenville, Tennessee, where the battery patrolled the surrounding area for Confederate forces. While performing this duty, the 21st, with other Union forces, engaged Confederates at the Battle of Walker's Ford, Tennessee on December 2, 1863. The battery continued to guard various fords and transportation systems in Tennessee and Alabama until the war's conclusion.
In July 1865, officials ordered the 21st Battery to Camp Taylor, at Cleveland, Ohio. The battery mustered out of service at Camp Taylor on July 21, 1865.
During the 21st Battery's term of service, the organization had no men killed on the battlefield and nine soldiers, including one officer, die from disease or accidents.