Also known as the Rich Mountain Campaign, or simply Operations in Western Virginia, the Western Virginia Campaign was a struggle between Union and Confederate forces in 1861 for control of the mountainous area of western Virginia.
As the possibility of civil war in the United States evolved during the early months of 1861, Virginia was a divided state. Led by residents of the eastern part of the state, Virginia voted to secede from the Union rather than to accede to President Lincoln's call for each state to provide volunteer soldiers to put down the insurrection that began at Fort Sumter in April. Having little in common with their neighbors to the east, residents of the mountainous area of western Virginia initiated their own movement to secede from Virginia to remain in the Union.
During the summer of 1861, Union and Confederate forces struggled for control of western Virginia. The area was of considerable importance because gaps in the Appalachia Mountains connected the East to the Midwest. The Virginia Militia acted quickly, disrupting traffic on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and taking control of turnpikes through the mountains. The federal government countered by sending 20,000 troops into the area under the command of Major General George McClellan. McClellan's forces pressed the Confederate forces in the area throughout the summer and fall, gradually driving the Rebels out of the region, paving the way for the creation of the new state of West Virginia in October, although the federal government did not recognize West Virginia as a formal state until June 1863.
Battle of Philippi (June 3, 1861)
On June 3, Brigadier General Thomas A. Morris deployed two columns of Union troops in a pre-dawn attack against a Confederate encampment at Philippi. The Rebels were so completely surprised that some of them frantically retreated in their bed clothes, prompting Northern journalists to refer to the battle as the "Races at Philippi." The Battle of Philippi is generally considered as the first significant land engagement in the eastern theater of the American Civil War.
Battle of Rich Mountain (July 11, 1861)
On June 15, the Confederate government placed Brigadier General Robert Selden Garnett in charge of the forces opposing McClellan in western Virginia. Garnett inherited a difficult situation. With just 4,600 soldiers, he was expected to stem a Federal onslaught that was gradually pushing the Rebels south and east. Garnett deployed his troops at two key passes through the mountains. He sent Lieutenant Colonel John Pegram, in charge of roughly 1,300 men, to guard the pass at Rich Mountain, just west of Beverly. Garnett took personal command of the remainder of his force guarding the pass at Laurel Hill north of Beverly. Under the direction of Colonel Jonathan M. Heck, the Rebels constructed a fortified position at Rich Mountain, known as Camp Garnett.
McClellan devised a plan calling for Morris' brigade to demonstrate in front of Laurel Mountain, keeping Garnett in place, while McClellan sent the bulk of his force against Pegram's 1,300 soldiers at Camp Garnett. On the night of July 10, Brigadier General William Rosecrans led 2,000 men on a march over the mountain. The next day, he defeated a small Rebel force near the crest of the mountain at Hart's farm. Rosecrans's then prepared to attack the Confederate rear on July 12. Realizing that Rosecrans was at his rear, Pegram ordered the evacuation of Camp Garnett during the night. About half of the retreating Rebels made it to Beverly, but pursuing Federals captured Pegram and the others on July 13. Upon hearing of Pegram's withdrawal, Garnett abandoned his position at Laurel Hill. As his troops retreated south, Garnett was mortally wounded on July 13, while directing his rear guard, making him the first general officer to die in the Civil War.
Battle of Kessler's Cross Lanes (August 26, 1861)
Following Garnett's death, Confederate officials transferred General Robert E. Lee to western Virginia to coordinate Rebel forces in the region. Lee would later emerge as one of the South's greatest generals, but even he could not salvage the Confederate situation in western Virginia.
On the Union side, President Lincoln summoned McClellan to the White House and offered him command of the Military Division of the Potomac. Following McClellan's departure, Brigadier General William S. Rosecrans assumed control of McClellan's forces operating in western Virginia. Brigadier General Joseph J. Reynolds was placed in direct command of the Federal force in Tygart Valley.
In late July, Union Brigadier General Jacob Cox led his "Kanawha Brigade" of Ohio Volunteer Regiments into western Virginia and forced Confederate forces out of the Kanawha River Valley. Confederate Brigadier General John B. Floyd countered by crossing the Gauley River with 2,000 soldiers and routing Colonel Erastus Tyler's 7th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry encamped at Kessler's Cross Lanes on August 26. Floyd then withdrew to the river and established a defensive position at Carnifex Ferry known as Camp Gauley.
Battle of Carnifex Ferry (September 10, 1861)
In early September, Brigadier General William S. Rosecrans assembled a Union force of roughly 7,000 soldiers and marched on Floyd's soldiers at Camp Gauley. The leading elements of Rosecrans' force came into contact with Floyd's men near Carnifex Ferry after noon on September 10. Before Rosecrans was able to concentrate his troops for engagement, a battle erupted. Rosecrans spent the day sending in his brigades one at a time as they arrived at the battlefield, allowing the outnumbered Confederates to repulse the piecemeal Union attacks. When the fighting ended that night, Floyd chose to withdraw rather than face Rosecrans' fully assembled force the next day. The following morning, Union troops occupied Camp Gauley without incident. The Union victory left western Virginia under the control of Federal troops.
Battle of Cheat Mountain (September 12 – 15, 1861)
In early September, Robert E. Lee left Sewell Mountain and joined Brigadier General William W. Loring's 11,000-man Army of the Northwest at Valley Mountain in Pocahontas County. The two Confederate generals planned an offensive against the Northern forces at Cheat Mountain. The plan called for three Rebel brigades to attack Cheat Summit Fort on September 12. Bad weather and rugged terrain created poor communication between the three brigades, resulting in an uncoordinated and ineffective assault. The Confederate force probed at the Union position for three days before giving up and withdrawing to Valley Mountain. Lee's first first effort leading troops in combat during the Civil War did not end well, causing Confederate officials to reassign him in October.
Battle of Greenbrier River (October 3, 1861)
On the night of October 2, Brigadier General Joseph Reynolds led two Union brigades from Cheat Mountain toward a Confederate encampment near the Greenbrier River. Reynolds' attempt to surprise the Rebels the next morning was dashed when enemy pickets detected his force before they reached the main encampment. The Federals drove the Confederate pickets back in the morning, but after sporadic fighting throughout the rest of the day proved futile, Reynolds withdrew to Cheat Mountain.
By late October, Northern forces and Union sympathizers had firm control of western Virginia. On October 24, 1861, residents of thirty-nine counties in western Virginia approved the formation of the new state of West Virginia. A week later, Lee and Wise were recalled to Richmond, and Floyd was dispatched to Fort Donelson, Tennessee.
Ohio units that participated in these operations in western Virginia included:
3rd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
4th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
5th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
6th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
7th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
8th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
9th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
10th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
12th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
13th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
14th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
15th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
16th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
17th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
18th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
19th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
20th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
22nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
23rd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
24th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
25th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
28th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
30th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
32nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
47th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
1st Ohio Light Artillery
12th Ohio Independent Battery
1st Regiment Ohio Volunteer Cavalry
- William Starke Rosecrans
- George Brinton McClellan
- Robert Edward Lee
- Jacob Dolson Cox
- Battle of Philippi
- Battle of Rich Mountain
- Battle of Carnifex Ferry
- Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- Battle of Kessler’s Cross Lanes
- Battle of Cheat Mountain
- Battle of Greenbrier River
- Daniel Harris Reynolds
- Robert Selden Garnett
- 32nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- John Buchanan Floyd
- 10th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- 12th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- 4th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- 17th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- 24th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- 28th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- 47th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- 30th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- 1st Regiment Ohio Volunteer Cavalry
- Army of the Northwest (CSA)
- Army of the Northwest (CSA)
- William Wing Loring