In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Infantry regiments formed in Ohio became known as regiments of Ohio Volunteer Infantry. They served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years.On September 1, 1862, the 100th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry mustered into service at Camp Toledo, at Toledo, Ohio. The men in the 100th were to serve for three years.
On September 8, 1862, the 100th moved to Cincinnati, Ohio and soon thereafter to Covington, Kentucky, near Fort Mitchell, to help defend Cincinnati from an expected attack by General Kirby Smith's Confederate force. The attack did not occur, and on October 8, the regiment advanced to Lexington, Kentucky, where officers drilled the organization's members. On December 1, 1862, the 100th moved to Richmond, Kentucky, constructing fortifications until December 26, when the regiment marched to Danville, Kentucky. On January 3, 1863, the 100th traveled to Frankfort, Kentucky, where the regiment stayed until late February 1863. At that time, the organization moved towards Lexington to intercept Confederate raiders. The regiment spent the spring and summer of 1863 marching across Kentucky, including to the communities of Somerset, Crab Orchard, and Mount Vernon, seeking out Confederate partisans, guerrillas, and regular forces.
On August 13, 1863, the 100th returned to Danville and soon departed for eastern Tennessee. The regiment helped to end the Confederate Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee. Unfortunately for the regiment, on September 4, 1863, Southerners captured 240 of the organization's soldiers who had been detached to guard a railroad line on the Tennessee-Virginia border. Confederates imprisoned these men in Richmond, Virginia.
In the late spring of 1864, the 100th joined General William T. Sherman's command at Tunnel Hill, Georgia and embarked upon the Atlanta Campaign. The 100th fought in most of the major engagements of this campaign, including the Battles of Rocky Face Ridge, Resaca, Atlanta, and Etowah Creek. In an assault on Atlanta, Georgia on August 6, 1864, the regiment had 103 men killed or wounded out of three hundred soldiers engaged. After the capture of Atlanta in early September 1864, the commanding officer of the 100th issued the following report:
CAMP 100TH REGT. OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, Decatur, Ga., September 9, 1864.
LIEUT.: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by this regiment in the recent campaign since crossing the Chattahoochee:
July 8, 1864, this regiment, under the command of Col. P. S. Slevin, in company with the balance of the brigade, crossed the Chattahoochee River, and with but little change of position remained within about six miles of the south bank until July 14, when it went upon a reconnaissance some five miles and returned to camp same night. July 17, 18, and 19, the brigade advanced a few miles each day, the general direction being toward Decatur, Ga., this regiment supporting skirmish line the 17th and 18th. July 20, brigade moved in direction of Atlanta, the whole line skirmishing more or less, and camped at night about three miles of Atlanta. July 22, moved a short distance toward town and then went to the rear toward Decatur to guard trains, staying until 26th, when moved nearer town and occupied works until the night of August 1, with the exception of the 29th, when the brigade made a short reconnaissance, and returning to camp same night, when the corps moved toward the extreme right of the army, and on the 2d went into position on the extreme right and put up works.
August 4, moved a short distance farther to the right. August 5, Second Lieut. Addison S. Clarke, Company G; Sergt. William N. Stugard, Company E, and Private H. Snyder, Company B, were wounded while the regiment were in works. Lieut. Clarke died August 12. August 6, this regiment, with a part of the brigade, made an unsuccessful charge upon the enemy's works, losing 34 killed, 57 wounded. and 9 missing. Capt. Frank Rundell took command of the regiment during the fight, Col. P. S. Slevin being sent to the rear wounded. August 7, advanced the line about half a mile beyond the point charged the 6th, and went into position. Remained in camp until August 12, when the brigade went on a reconnaissance about four miles and back, and went into camp on the Sandtown road. August 16, marched two miles and took up position in front line. August 18, moved about two miles to the right. August 19, supported skirmish line; Private Evander Kenning, Company K, wounded. Remained in camp until August 28. August 28, 29, and 30, marched with brigade. August 31, detached to guard corps train. Moved with the train until it arrived at Decatur, Ga., September 8, when the regiment joined the brigade.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Capt., Cmdg. Regt.
Lieut. J. W. McCLYMONDS,
A. A. A. G., 1st Brig., 3d Div., 23d Army Corps.
The 100th remained at Atlanta for several weeks, before officials dispatched the regiment to assist Union forces in intercepting Confederate John Bell Hood's army, which was launching an invasion of Tennessee. The 100th fought in the Battle of Franklin (November 30, 1864), with the Northern soldiers retreating to Nashville, Tennessee. The 100th also participated in the Battle of Nashville (December 15 to 16, 1864). After this battle, the commanding officer of the 100th filed the following reports:
HDQRS. 100TH REGT. OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, Nashville, Tenn., December 6, 1864.
GEN.: I have the honor to make the following report of the part taken by this regiment in the battle at Franklin, Tenn., November 30:
My regiment was the extreme right regiment of the brigade and division, my right resting on the Franklin and Columbia pike, fronting nearly south, the left connecting with the One hundred and fourth Regt. Ohio Volunteer Infantry. I had thrown up a temporary breast-work, with head-logs on top and an abatis in front. The First Kentucky Battery was then placed in my line, cutting embrasures in my work, and displacing three companies. To cover these companies I threw up a light earth-work about three rods in rear of my main line. A brigade of Gen. Wagner's division, Fourth Corps, was some 200 or 300 yards in our front. About 4 p.m. the enemy advanced in three lines upon them. They fell back upon us, coming in on the right flank and over our works. They filled our trenches so that we were unable to use our guns, and creating considerable confusion, the enemy reaching our works almost simultaneously with them. I immediately ordered the men belonging to the Fourth Corps to fall back and reform in rear of the second of works, which order some of my men upon the right mistook as meaning them, and fell back with the colors, but immediately rallied and went back upon my ordering the color-sergeant, Byron C. Baldwin, to advance and plant the colors upon the works. The battery men deserting their pieces, a space was left around the guns between my right and left, which was filled by some men of the Sixteenth Kentucky; at the same time the regiment on the right of the road gave way, and the enemy poured in over the pike onto my right flank. The Forty-fourth Illinois here charged with my right and forced the enemy back beyond the works. From this time until we were ordered to leave the works, at 10.30 p.m., six distinct charges were made upon my right, and repulsed each time. I was exposed to a murderous enfilading fire from our works on the right of the road, which was held by the enemy, never having been retaken by the troops on our right after the first charge. A large proportion of our missing were captured on the skirmish line, which was in advance of the
I would particularly mention the distinguished gallantry of Capt. W. W. Hunt (acting major), who fell while nobly fighting at the front works, and of Lieut. M. A. Brown, who was on the skirmish line, and was wounded while falling back upon the main line, and was killed inside of the works, urging the men to stand fast. Color-Sergt. Byron C. Baldwin fell with the colors in his hand, and wrapped them around him in his death struggle.
It would be invidious in me to mention any of the survivors where all did so nobly, both officers and men sustained the character they always bore as brave soldiers.
The following is the number of men engaged and our loss in killed, wounded, and missing: Number of men engaged, 250. Commissioned officers-killed, 2 (1 not mustered); wounded, 1. Enlisted men-killed, 6; wounded, 24; missing, 32. Total, 65.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
E. L. HAYES,
Lieut. Col., Cmdg. 100th Regt. Ohio Volunteer Infantry.
Brig. Gen. JAMES W. REILLY,
Cmdg. First Brig., Third Div., Twenty-third Army Corps.
HDQRS. 100TH OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, Spring Hill, Tenn., December 22, 1864.
CAPT.: I have the honor to make the following report of the part taken by this regiment in the operations of the 15th and 16th instant:
Our movements on the 15th are not worthy of notice, as we simply moved with the brigade around to the right to the support of Gen. Smith's forces and went into position that evening; that night we threw up a line of works, and on the morning of the 16th found the enemy's line also thrown up in the night in plain view in our immediate front. Skirmishing was kept up until about 3.30 p.m., when a charge was made along the whole line. My regiment advanced up a ravine, driving their skirmishers out of their pits until we reached the enemy's line of works, when, in connection with the Eighth Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, we captured four pieces of artillery and quite a number of prisoners, but as these were at once sent to the rear their numbers cannot be correctly given. The regiment pushed on, making a swing to the right until we formed a line perpendicular to the one we had just left, and on the crest of the hill, where we threw up a new line of works and encamped for the night.
We did not lose a man.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
E. L. HAYES,
Lieut.-Col., Cmdg. 100th Ohio Volunteer Infantry.
Capt. J. H. BROWN,
Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
Following the Battle of Nashville, officials sent the 100th to Wilmington, North Carolina, where the regiment participated in the Battle of Wilmington (February 11 to 22, 1865). The organization next marched to Goldsboro, North Carolina and then to Raleigh, North Carolina. The regiment eventually returned to Goldsboro, before leaving for Cleveland, Ohio, where the 100th mustered out of service on July 1, 1865.
During the 100th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry's term of service, ninety-three men, including three officers, died on the battlefield. An additional 224 men, including six officers, succumbed to disease or accidents.