In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Infantry regiments formed in Ohio became known as regiments of Ohio Volunteer Infantry. They served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years.Between September 30 and October 8, 1862, the 122nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry organized at Camp Zanesville at Zanesville, Ohio. The men in the organization were to serve for three years, and most enlistees came from Muskingum, Morgan, Guernsey, and Coshocton Counties, Ohio.
On October 22, 1862, the 122nd departed Zanesville on the steamers Powell and Patton, traveling to Parkersburg, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia). The regiment then moved via train to Clarksburg, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia). On November 15, 1862, the organization moved to New Creek, Virginia (modern-day West Virginia). During the latter months of 1862, the 122nd participated in an advance to Winchester, Virginia in the Shenandoah Valley. The regiment marched through Petersburg, Wardensville, Strasburg, Moorefield, and Romney, arriving at Winchester on January 1, 1863. During the march, Confederate forces attacked a portion of the 122nd which was guarding the Northerners' supply train. The Union soldiers repulsed the Southerners, but the Confederates captured four members of Company A of the 122nd.
At Winchester, the 122nd garrisoned the city with the 110th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry. Beginning in March 1863, the regiment conducted expeditions throughout the Shenandoah Valley, including ones to the communities of Newton, Front Royal, Summit Point, White Post, Cedar Creek, Millwood, and Blue Ridge. On May 4, 1863, authorities ordered the 122nd to Staunton to capture the city, but upon the organization reaching New Market, officials commanded the regiment to return to Winchester.
On June 13, 1863, Companies A and F of the 122nd engaged Confederate General James Ewell Brown Stuart's cavalry outside of Winchester, with the Northerners withdrawing to their lines in the city. On the next day, the Battle of Winchester II occurred, with the Union forces retreating to Harper's Ferry, West Virginia the following day. The 122nd encamped at Bolivar Heights for one night and then crossed the Potomac River, establishing a base on Maryland Heights. Union forces eventually withdrew from Maryland Heights, with the 122nd traveling via Georgetown, District of Columbia and Washington, District of Columbia to Frederick, Maryland. At Frederick, officials assigned the regiment to the 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 3rd Army Corps. Following the Confederacy's Army of Northern Virginia's defeat at the Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (July 1-3, 1863), the regiment departed Frederick in pursuit of General Robert E. Lee's retreating Southerners. The 122nd marched from Frederick to the Wapping Heights in western Virginia before moving to the Rappahannock River in east-central Virginia by August 1, 1863.
Due to draft riots occurring in New York City, New York, officials dispatched the 122nd to that location to help quell the disturbance. The regiment returned to Virginia by early September 1863, taking up the unit's old position along the Rappahannock River. The organization soon moved to Culpeper Court House, Virginia, remaining at this city until October 1863, when the 122nd marched to Centerville, Virginia. The regiment fought in the Battle of Bristoe Station, Virginia (October 14, 1863), helping to repulse a Confederate advance into northern Virginia. The organization also participated in a skirmish at Brandy Station on November 8, 1863. On November 26, 1863, the unit crossed the Rapidan River and engaged Confederate forces at the Battle of Locust Grove. The 122nd returned to Brandy Station by December 3, 1863 and constructed winter quarters.
On May 4, 1864, the 122nd left Brandy Station and embarked upon General Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign. The regiment fought in the Battle of the Wilderness (May 5-7, 1864), having 120 men killed or wounded on the engagement's first day. During the remainder of the Overland Campaign, the organization fought in the Battles of Spotsylvania (May 8-21, 1864), North Anna (May 23-26, 1864), Totopotomy Creek (May 29-30, 1864), and Cold Harbor (May 31-June 12, 1864). By mid June 1864, the 122nd had joined the Union siege of Petersburg, Virginia, helping the Northern military to capture the Weldon Railroad on June 22 and 23, 1864.The 122nd's commanding officer issued the following reports during the early months of Grant's Overland Campaign:
HDQRS. 122d REGT. OHIO INFANTRY VOLS., September 10, 1864.
LIEUT.: Pursuant to directions from headquarters Second Brigade, Third Division, Sixth Army Corps, I have the honor to make the following report of the part taken by my regiment in the campaign south of Rapidan, from May 4 to July 6, 1864:
On the morning of the 4th of May the One hundred and twenty-second Regiment, with the corps, marched from near Brandy Station, Va., crossed the Rapidan at Germanna Ford, and bivouacked a mile south of the river. On the 5th instant marched 2 miles up the river, when the regiment formed the right of the second line. After occupying that position a few hours marched to plank road, down the road to the left of the First Division, then up the road and took position on the extreme right of the army, One hundred and twenty-second in second line. My regiment was held in reserve in the assault that afternoon, was made under fire, but not engaged. The regiment bivouacked on the night of the 5th in the position occupied when in reserve, within range of the enemy's musketry and protected only by intervening timbers. In the night 200 of my men and myself were detailed for picket and directed to connect with the right of the First Division. In connecting the pickets of the brigade with those of the First Division, the reserve was necessarily thrown in rear of my regiment and the vedettes but a few paces from the flank. Through the night the rebels were actively engaged in cutting timber, strengthening their works, and moving to our right. Brig.-Gen. Seymour, who took command of the brigade that morning, was repeatedly notified during the night and early in the morning of the 6th of the movements of the enemy. On the morning of the 6th the works of the enemy were assaulted, my regiment being on the left of the brigade and connecting with the First Division. In the assault my regiment had no support whatever. The men advanced steadily, and when within 70 yards of the breast-works the enemy opened a well-directed fire. A fierce engagement ensued, which lasted nearly an hour; their fire being terribly fatal. The regiment in connection with the troops on the right and left were withdrawn a short distance, but still within range of their sharpshooters, when defenses were thrown up an attack awaited. Gen. Shaler's brigade, First Division, had to be moved to our right after the assault. Six companies of my regiment were in the entrenchments and four companies in the second line, being the left of the brigade. At sunset a feint was made upon our front and a vigorous assault upon our right flank. The regiments on my right gave way one after another. When my regiment was ordered to retreat, there was not a man in the entrenchments on my right or left. So quick were the movements of the enemy that when I first discovered them in our rear, line with all speed. We were then in the midst of extensive woods and thick undergrowth. The turning of our right flank was the result of gross negligence on the part of some general officer, I
; know not whom. The retreat was necessarily disorderly, there being barely time for possible escape. The regiment assembled during the night and early in the morning of the 7th in rear of the right of the Fifth Corps. Early in the morning of the 7th the rebels moved upon that position, but were repulsed by artillery. The infantry did not become engaged.
On the evening of the 7th the regiment with the army moved toward Spotsylvania Court-House, via Chancellorsville, and took position during the afternoon of the 8th, and immediately formed to assault the enemy, the One hundred and twenty-second in fourth line. Thence the regiment was moved to the right to the crest of a hill to prevent a flank movement of the enemy in that direction. Late in the evening the regiment with the brigade moved some 2 miles to the left, where breast-works were constructed, One hundred and twenty-second Ohio in second line. On the 9th the larger part of the regiment was placed upon the skirmish line, and remained three days. Those in line were constantly under fire from the sharpshooters of the enemy and occasional shelling. On the 10th my regiment, with the brigade, supported artillery engaged in shelling the enemy. In the afternoon moved to the left and took position with the brigade on the right of the army and near the point of attack on the enemy's works. The regiment was under fire both of artillery and musketry, but not engaged. On the 11th the entire regiment was placed on picket. Twice in the night the line was attacked, but neither broken nor driven back. On the 14th marched, with the corps, to the left, crossed the River Ny, and took position near the Anderson house, and intrenched, One hundred and twenty-second in second line. On the evening of the 17th moved with the corps to the right to assault the enemy; reached the position at daylight, were shelled, and returned to position left the evening before. On the 19th advanced some 2 miles, took position, and intrenched. On the afternoon of the 21st retired to an intermediate line; pickets vigorously attacked; regiment placed in position to receive an attack. In the evening marched with the corps to the left.
During the evening of the 21st moved via Guiney's Station toward the North Anna River, guarding the train until the 25th, when we came to Jericho Ford, on the North Anna, when the regiment was detached to guard the ford.
On the evening of the 26th marched, with the corps, via Chesterfield, crossed the Pamunkey on the 28th, and on the 30th moved toward the Totopotomoy, arriving on the 31st. We moved forward under artillery fire, took position, One hundred and twenty-second Regt. in first line, and found the skirmish line closely engaged. The skirmishers were pressed back to the line of battle, but the rebels fell back without engaging the line, and the skirmishers resumed their position. The regiment was under the skirmish fire of the enemy and lost several men. In the morning moved with the corps to Cold Harbor.
Came to Cold Harbor June 1, in the forenoon. Found the cavalry engaged with the enemy, and threw up breast-works, then moved half a mile to the left and formed to assault, One hundred and twenty-second in fourth line. In the afternoon assaulted the enemy's works; carried and held them. June 2, engaged in strengthening captured entrenchments. On the morning of June 3 again assaulted the enemy's works (One hundred and tenth and One hundred and twenty-second Ohio constituting the first line of the brigade, Second Division, on right, First Brigade on left), when within 300 yards of the rebel defenses, and halted. The One hundred and tenth Ohio moved forward (under brigade orders). I being governed by the right moved my regiment with it, but discovering when the line had advanced 50 yards that the Second Division remained in position, I ordered my regiment to halt, the right flank of the brigade being disconnected from the Second Division, and unprotected. We remained in that position under a severe fire, which could not be effectively returned, several hours. I then, in connection with the regiment on my right, withdrew to the line from which it last moved, when, under fire, we intrenched. Four lines of works were constructed, all under fire, and occupied until the night of the 10th, regiments changing position daily, when the regiment, with the brigade, moved a mile to the left, and on the 11th relieved a part of the Second Corps, occupying a second line of entrenchments. On the night of the 12th moved back a half mile to a line of works constructed that day.
About 2 a.m. on the 13th marched for Charles City Court-House, crossing the Chickahominy at Jones' Bridge.
W. H. BALL,
Col. 122d Ohio Volunteers.
Lieut. JOHN A. GUMP,
A. A. A. G., Second Brig., Third Div., Sixth Corps.
HDQRS. 122d REGT. OHIO INFANTRY VOLS., September 10, 1864.
Took position [14th] near Charles City Court-House and entrenched. On the afternoon of the 16th marched to James River, at Wilcox's Landing, and embarked for Bermuda Hundred, where we arrived about 1 a.m. of the 17th; thence moved immediately to the lines occupied by Gen. Butler. At 2 a.m. of the 18th marched in front of Gen. Butler's lines, One hundred and twenty-second in fourth line. Returned to place of bivouac at daylight. On the afternoon of the 18th moved a mile to the right and occupied intrenchments. On the evening of the 19th marched to the left, crossed the Appomattox at Point of Rocks, and bivouacked two miles north of Petersburg, where we remained until the afternoon of the 21st, when we marched to the left and took position four miles south of Petersburg and entrenched. On the 22d advanced half a mile, with skirmishers actively engaged. Returned to former position. Late in the afternoon advanced again, One hundred and twenty-second in second line, and charged the enemy, who fled with but little resistance; continued to advance in line until after dark; having advanced two miles, bivouacked. On the 23d intrenched; heavy skirmishing, but regiment not engaged. In the evening returned to the position taken on the 21st. On the evening of the 28th [29th] moved to the left and reached Reams' Station on the Weldon railroad. The One hundred and twenty-second being in the second line took no part in the construction of the defensive works at that place. Returned to the intrenchments to the left of and near our former position on the morning of the 29 of July. On the morning of the 6th of July marched to City Point and embarked for Baltimore, Md.
It is due to the officers and men of my command that I state that they did not on any occasion during that terrible campaign-terrible alike for fatigue and danger-hesitate to obey any command to move upon the enemy, nor did they on any occasion retire from the conflict or from their position unless ordered to do so. It is also worthy of notice that at no time during the campaign could the regiment rely upon having an hour's rest.
I append a tabular statement of the losses during the campaign:
Tabular statement of losses of One hundred and twenty-second Regiment Ohio Volunteers.
K=Killed. W=Wounded. M=Missing. P=Prisoners of War. T=Total. O=Officers. EM=Enlisted men.
W. H. BALL,
Col. 122d Ohio Volunteers.
Lieut. JOHN A. GUMP,
Asst. Adjt. Gen., Second Brig., Third Div., Sixth Corps.
On July 6, 1864, officials ordered the 122nd to Frederick, Maryland to help Northern forces repel Confederate General Jubal Early's advance on Washington, DC. The regiment arrived at Frederick on July 9, 1864 and engaged Southern forces at the Battle of Monocacy that same day. The organization covered the Union force's retreat from the battlefield and then traveled to Baltimore, Maryland via Ellicott's Mills, Maryland. The regiment eventually marched through Washington to Leesburg, Virginia, as Early's army retreated from Washington after the Battle of Fort Stevens (July 11-12, 1864). The 122nd pursued the Confederates to the vicinity of Berryville, Virginia in the Shenandoah Valley and then marched to Harper's Ferry, West Virginia via the Maryland communities of Rockville and Monocacy Junction. The regiment soon returned to Monocacy Junction, remaining at this location until August 7, 1864, when the unit advanced to Halltown, West Virginia. On August 10, 1864, the organization began a march from Halltown to Fisher's Hill, Virginia, traveling through Clifton, Berryville, and Newton. The 122d next participated in the Battle of Opequon, Virginia (September 19, 1864), driving Early's Confederates from the battlefield. Three days later, the Union soldiers attacked Early's main position on Fisher's Hill, seizing the Confederates' defenses.
Following the Battle of Fisher's Hill, the 122nd joined the Northern pursuit of Early's army as far as Mount Crawford, Virginia, when officials ordered the regiment to Alexandria, Virginia. Upon reaching Ashby's Gap, Virginia, authorities countermanded the earlier directive, and the 122nd returned to the Shenandoah Valley, encamping at Cedar Creek on October 14, 1864. Five days later, the regiment helped the Northern forces repulse Early's army at the Battle of Cedar Creek.
During the campaign against Early's Confederates, the 122nd's commanding officer issued the following reports:
HDQRS. 122ND OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, Harrisonburg, Va., September 27, 1864.
LIEUT.: I have the honor to make the following report of the part taken by my regiment in the late engagements at the Opequon and at Fisher's Hill, the 19th and 22d instant:
The One hundred and twenty-second Ohio Volunteer Infantry marched from Clifton at 2 o'clock the morning of the 19th and formed in the second line, two miles and a half west of the Opequon, near the Berryville road, the One hundred and tenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry on my right, the Ninth New York Heavy Artillery on my left. At noon the regiment, with the brigade, advanced upon the enemy, with the guide to the left. While advancing through the open woods our lines were shelled with great accuracy by two rebel batteries occupying positions to our left. In passing through the woods the One hundred and tenth Ohio became detached, leaving my regiment the right of the rear line of the brigade. A few moments after we came upon the open field in front, the rebel line broke, and both infantry and artillery were in full and speedy retreat toward Winchester. My regiment, in common with those in front and on my left, pressed after the retreating line. The troops on my right were checked and driven back by the enemy, posted in a wood hill near my right. We moved on, passed that wood, crossed a deep ravine to a corn-field, where, there being no connection on my right, I posted fifty men to guard my flank; then I moved on, until finding a space of 600 yards unoccupied on my right, I halted the two regiments, and the rebels, shortly after, making some demonstrations at a third piece of woods, I charged front, by throwing back my right, so as to correspond with the rebel position. We had occupied this position but a short time, when a column of troops, partly concealed by intervening corn, moved up from the rebel left bearing the U. S. flag, and took position at the skirt of the woods in front of my line. Immediately quick firing opened from that line, the discharges being apparently toward the rebel rear. No bullets came toward us, and no their troops were in front of that line. I immediately ordered the troops with me to advance to support that line, having no doubt it was composed of Federal troops closely engaged with the enemy. On advancing some fifty paces we received an active fire from that direction, but supposing it to be the fire of the enemy from beyond we continued to advance until I discovered the fire was directly from that line. Apprehending that a force was moving down the ravine to our right and rear, and that the force in front was to detain us until cut off, and every regiment having disappeared from the front and left, I ordered the regiment to retire to an elevation behind the ravine. With other troops, the regiment again advanced to line from which we had retired, and there remained under fire of sharpshooters an hour or two; then advanced with the line (there being but one line) toward Winchester, and assisted in dispersing the rebel army on the plain north of Winchester; then moved with the division to the heights of Winchester; thence to the town southward to bivouac.
On the 20th marched to position near Strasburg. On the 21st moved with the corps to the right, and occupied a position between Fisher's Hill and the mountain, where we entrenched. On the 22d, at noon, marched by the right flank half a mile, then to the front to hill near the rebel line. The left wing of the regiment was detached for the skirmish line under Lieut.-Col. Granger. Three additional detachments were sent to the skirmish line, embracing all the remaining line officers and enlisted men of my regiment. Skirmishing was sharp during the advance. When the rebel left was turned by Gen. Crook, the regiment charged, with the brigade, upon the breast-works in our front; assisted in routing the enemy and chasing him till dark.
My officers and men conducted themselves splendidly on both the 19th and 22d. I beg leave to name Sergt. Daniel Shook, of Company G, as having exhibited distinguishing energy and courage in both engagements.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. H. BALL,
Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen., 2d Brig., 3d Div., 6th Army Corps.
HDQRS. 122ND OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, November 7, 1864.
CAPT.: I have the honor to transmit the following report of the operations of this regiment in the battle of Cedar Creek, on the 19th of October, 1864:
I was aroused at daybreak on that morning by the sound of heavy musketry on the extreme left of the army, and at once ordered the regiment under arms; formed line, stacked arms, caused the men to pack their tents and knapsacks, and sent the regimental pack animals to the rear and the headquarters tents, &c., to the brigade wagons. By the time this was done Col. Ball, who had succeeded to the command of the brigade, moved his command by the right flank several hundred yards in the direction of Middletown, and them, by order, returned to camp. By this time the enemy had succeeded in driving the portion of our forces engaged to the west side of the turnpike, and bullets began to fall on our ground, and but a few moments had passed when we were again marched by the right flank toward Middletown. When just beyond Sixth Corps headquarters the brigade halted and faced to the right, bringing the rear rank in front, the Ohe hundred and twenty-second being in the front line, with the One hundred and tenth on its right and the One hundred and twenty-sixth Ohio on its left. Being ordered to take the hill near Gen. Sheridan's headquarters, the line moved forward and my regiment crossed the creek and began to ascend the opposite slope. A part of the Nineteenth Corps passing to the rear in a mass struck the right of my regiment and the left of the One hundred and tenth at the white house near Gen. Wright's headquarters, and the brigade became divided in two parts. The order for the advance was countermanded and I recrossed the creek, and, following the direction taken by the One hundred and twenty-sixth Ohio, formed on the right of that regiment in line with the First Brigade behind the crest of the hill north of headquarters Third Division, Sixth Corps, but immediately advanced to the crest of the hill, driving back the enemy, who had followed us closely. He fell back in haste and disorder across the ravine and beyond the opposite hill, leaving several prisoners in our hands. Retaining for a time the position thus gained, and having no enemy on our front, we directed our fire with some effect upon a column of rebels then marching through our camp-ground in the direction of the extreme right. Meanwhile, another body of the enemy advanced on the left and appeared on a ridge to our left and rear. Observing the remainder of the Second Brigade in good line, several hundred yards to the right and a little to the rear of our then position, we faced about, and marching to the left oblique, passed through a heavy cross-fire, that occasioned many of the casualties hereinafter reported, and rejoined the brigade. The brigade then moved under orders and with steadiness to the rear and found a line formed along a lane and protected by hastily piled rails, and shortly before 9 a. m. took position on the left of this line a wood.
About 9.30 a. m. the whole line was marched near a mile to the rear, then to the right (that is, toward the turnpike), we being faced to the rear, forming a connection with the Second Division, Sixth Corps, and then to the front again, taking position about 10 a. m. about one mile and a quarter north of Middletown. Here the Sixth Maryland was on my left and the Ninth New York Heavy [Artillery] on my right. No firing occurred on or from my line from about a quarter before 9 a. m. until the general advance in the afternoon. About 3.30 the line advanced, but the guide being to the left, before the extreme right was felt by the enemy he had detected our movement and we received a heavy fire of both musketry and shell from a force posted in a wood on our right. Under this fire a portion of the troops on the right belonging, I suppose, to the First Division were somewhat disordered, being most exposed to the cross-fire, and part of the Second Division, on our left, began to move rapidly to the rear. This caused first, hesitation; next, a retrograde movement of our line; but order was almost immediately restored and the advance resumed. The enemy endeavored to hold fast to a stone fence on our front about three-quarters of a mile north of Middletown, and succeeded in delaying us for from twenty to thirty minutes, but advantage being taken of a transverse fence and a sudden and very heavy fire opened on him from the front and partially from the flank he fled with precipitation, and notwithstanding several efforts to reform his line under cover of the well-directed fire of a battery placed near Middletown he was carried steadily backward until night-fall found us on the bank of Cedar Creek with our foe fleeing in utter rout before our cavalry. Pursuant to orders, my regiment at once reoccupied its camp.
A leave of absence for Capt. Gilber H. Bargar had arrived on the evening of the 18th and was given him on the morning of the 19th without my imagining he would leave the field, but he almost immediately, without my observing it, left his company and proceeded to Winchester. Before his leave expired and order honorably discharging him from the service on tender of his resignation was received, and I am unable to notice his conduct of the 19th ultimo save in this manner. With this exception, my officers and much the greater part of my men, both volunteers and drafted, behaved with gallantry, and well deserve their share of the thanks given by the President and the country for the glorious victory of that day.
I regret that I must report the death on the field of First Lieut. Thomas Kilburn, a most faithful officer, and the dangerous wounding of Second Lieut. Edward R. Hilliard. Maj. Cornyn and Lieut.'s Power and Blondin were struck, but continued on duty.
The casualties of the regiment, as corrected to date, are: Killed and died of wounds–officers, 1; men, 3; total 4. Wounded–officers, 4; men, 31; total, 35. Missing–men, 6. Aggregate, 45.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
MOSES M. GRANGER,
Capt. J. J. BRADSHAW,
Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen., Second Brigade.
Permit me to refer to two incidents, each of interest to my regiment. Private Leander McClurg, Company F, One hundred and twenty-second Ohio Volunteer Infantry, was one of the first to cross the stone fence, where the enemy had attempted to check our advance, and captured a flag which a wounded rebel told him was the flag of the Forty-fourth (rebel) Virginian Regt. McClurg continued to advance, bearing the color, but it was forced from him by an officer of our service whose name and regiment I have been unable to learn, the officer using threats and taking advantage of his rank. The colors of the One hundred and twenty-second Ohio Regt. were the first, except those of the Sixty-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, planted on the works thrown up by the Nineteenth Corps, and which had been captured by the enemy in the morning.
Again, your obedient servant,
MOSES M. GRANGER,
Lieut. Col. 122d Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Comdg. Regt.
Following the Battle of Cedar Creek, the 122nd advanced to Kernstown, Virginia by November 10, 1864 and, on December 3, 1864, traveled via train to Washington, DC, where the regiment boarded transports for City Point, Virginia. By mid December 1864, the organization was in the frontlines before Petersburg, Virginia, where the unit initially was positioned between Forts Keene and Wadsworth and then, in January 1865, near Fort Fisher.
On April 2, 1865, the 122nd joined the Union advance against Confederate lines at Petersburg, finally driving Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia from the city. The 122nd's commanding officer issued the following report about the regiment's movements at Petersburg:
HDQRS. 122d OHIO VOLUNTEERS, April 16, 1865.
CAPT.: I have the honor to report that on the 25th of March last I received orders to have my regiment fall in and march out in rear of the One hundred and tenth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, commanded by Col. Binkley, and form line on their right, in rear of the reserve picket-post of the Third Division, Sixth Army Corps, which was immediately in front of the camps of the Second Brigade, of that division and within gunshot of the enemy's picket-line. Arriving there with my regiment in heavy marching order, I learned that these regiments were to charge the enemy's picket-lines. I had my men unsling knap-sacks and pile them on the field and prepare for the charge, with bayonets fixed. The ground over which we had to charge was marshy, and covered with brush, which impeded much the rapidity of the advance. Receiving the order from Col. Binkley to forward, march, a triumphant shout went up from the whole line, and all started on the double-quick for the enemy's works, from behind which heavy volleys of musketry were poured into the line as it advanced. Arriving at a point over half way between our our and the enemy's picket-line, a check was given to the advance by the increased fire from the enemy, and the opening of their artillery, and an immediate fall-back took place. Many soldiers, securing themselves as well as possible behind stumps and other obstructions, remained in their advanced positions rather than expose themselves to the enemy's fire in endeavoring to get to the rear. Being reorganized after the fall-back, we were re-enforced by the One hundred and twenty-sixth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Ninth New York, Sixth Maryland, and Sixty-seventh Pennsylvania; formed for the second charge, which was to commence the advance at the waving of the Second Brigade flag from the reserve post. At the given signal all started with a a yell, fully determined this time to go through, and nothing but the natural obstructions could or did impede our advance, and I take pleasure in saying that the colors of the One hundred and twenty-second Ohio Volunteer Infantry were the second planted on the enemy's works; this, considering the ground over which we charged, is creditable to the color bearer of this regiment (Sergt. Peter Mast).
A list of casualties has already been forwarded.
The officers and men of the regiment did their parts nobly, and maintained their character as good soldiers of the Second Brigade, Third Division, Sixth Army Corps.
C. M. CORNYN,
Lieut.-Col., Cmdg. 122d Ohio Volunteer Infantry.
The 122nd participated in the Union pursuit of the fleeing Southerners, which ended at Appomattox Court House, Virginia with Lee's surrender on April 9, 1865. The 122nd's commanding officer issued the following report about the regiment's movements during the pursuit:
HDQRS. 122d REGT. OHIO VOLUNTEERS, April 15, 1865.
CAPT.: In obedience to orders, I have the honor to report that since the assault on the enemy's works in front of Petersburg, on the morning of the 2d instant, of which a report has been forwarded, I have no special mention to make of any particular members of my regiment.
At the battle of Sailor's Creek my regiment was ordered out as skirmishers, where the enthusiasm and gallantry displayed by all in going in determined to succeed leaves no room for particular mention. The regiment captured full 500 prisoners, for which some have receipts, and undoubtedly would have captured the rebel's battery, which kept up a heavy fire on the advancing column, but for the interference of the cavalry who desired to charge, and I received orders to have my line halt for that purpose. The cavalry failing to go in, I ordered my line to advance; the left of my line receiving orders to bear to the left, the severe fighting took place, and sustained their character as brave soldiers.
I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
C. M. CORNYN,
Lieut.-Col., Cmdg. 122d Ohio Volunteers.
Capt. WILLIAM L. SHAW,
Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen.
Following Lee's capitulation, the 122nd marched to Danville, Virginia. In June 1865, the regiment traveled to Washington, DC, where the organization participated in the Grand Review. The regiment mustered out of service at Washington on July 26, 1865, officials discharged the unit's members on July 30, 1865 at Columbus, Ohio.
During the 122nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry's term of service, ninety-three men, including seven officers, died on the battlefield. An additional 137 men succumbed to disease or accidents.