In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units.
In the American Civil War, Ohio provided the federal government with 260 regiments of men, including infantry, artillery, and cavalry units. Ohioans also served in several other regiments from other states, most notably from Kentucky, West Virginia, and Massachusetts, as well as in federal units. Almost 330,000 Ohio men, including 5,092 African Americans, served in the Union military during the conflict.
Artillery units in Ohio served for varying lengths of time, averaging one hundred days to three years. In July and August 1861, Captain Daniel T. Cockerill began to organize Battery F of the 1st Regiment Ohio Light Artillery. On August 15, 1861, the battery went to Camp Lucas, near Olive Branch, Ohio, and on September 1, 1861, traveled to Camp Dennison, near Cincinnati, Ohio, where the organization mustered into service on December 3, 1861. The 1st Regiment had previously served for three months as a state organization. Battery F's members were now to serve three years.
Upon Battery F mustering into service, officials dispatched the organization to Louisville, Kentucky, where the organization eventually boarded transports for Nashville, Tennessee, arriving on February 23, 1862. In late March 1862, the battery departed Nashville for Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, traveling via Savannah, Tennessee. The organization arrived at Pittsburg landing on April 7, 1862, just after the Battle of Shiloh (April 6 and 7, 1862) ended. The battery participated in the Siege of Corinth, Mississippi from April 8, 1862 to June 1, 1862. Following the Union's capture of Corinth, Battery F traveled through northern Mississippi and Alabama, eventually reaching Tuscumbia, Alabama, where the battery rested for several days. The organization then traveled through the Alabama and Tennessee communities of Decatur, Huntsville, Fayetteville, and Shelbyville. At Shelbyville, officials ordered Battery F to Murfreesboro, with the organization arriving in early July 1862. Confederate forces had previously captured the city but withdrew upon the advance of the Union military.
In September 1862, Battery F departed Murfreesboro, joining the Army of the Ohio's pursuit of Braxton Bragg's Confederate army, which was advancing into Kentucky during the autumn of 1862. The battery reached Louisville in late September 1862, and in early October, the Union army departed Louisville in search of Bragg's force. On October 8, 1862, the two armies engaged at the Battle of Perryville, Kentucky. Battery F participated in the Northern victory, having no men killed. The battery pursued the retreating Confederates through the Kentucky communities of Wild Cat Mountain and Pittman's Crossing, skirmishing with Confederate forces at both locations. The organization next moved to Glasgow, Kentucky, where Battery H encamped for some time before moving to Nashville, Tennessee.
In late December 1862, Battery F and much of the Union's Army of the Cumberland advanced from Nashville towards Murfreesboro. On December 30, 1862, while on the march, the battery and other Union soldiers engaged Confederate forces near Murfreesboro. At the Battle of Stones River (December 31, 1862 to January 2, 1863) Battery F helped the Army of the Cumberland gain victory. The battery had two men killed and twelve additional soldiers wounded.
Battery F remained in the vicinity of Murfreesboro until late June 1863, when the organization embarked upon the Tullahoma Campaign. During this expedition, the battery skirmished with Confederate forces at Readyville, Tennessee and Woodbury Tennessee. The organization next participated in the Chattanooga Campaign, skirmishing with Confederate soldiers at Friar Island on the Tennessee River. The organization also engaged Confederate forces at the Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia (September 19 and 20, 1863). Battery F had one man killed and ten wounded at this Union defeat. After the Union defeat at Chickamauga, the battery retreated with the rest of the Army of the Cumberland to Chattanooga, Tennessee, shelling Confederate positions at the Battles of Lookout Mountain (November 24, 1863) and Missionary Ridge (November 25, 1863).
Following the Union victory at Missionary Ridge, officials dispatched Battery F to Nashville. On January 4, 1864, seventy-six out of ninety-six members of Battery F reenlisted and received a thirty-day furlough to their homes in Ohio. Upon completion of the furlough, the organization moved to Decatur, Alabama, remaining at this location for the war's duration except for a brief stay at Bridgeport, Alabama. Serving on garrison duty at both cities, the battery also participated in several skirmishes.
In early July 1865, officials ordered Battery F to depart Decatur to return to Camp Dennison, where the organization mustered out of service on July 25, 1865.